Presentation on theme: "Resources and Energy Chapter 7. Mineral Resources Metal Ores Non-metallic minerals Gems."— Presentation transcript:
Resources and Energy Chapter 7
Mineral Resources Metal Ores Non-metallic minerals Gems
Metal ores From cooling magma (Cr, Ni, Pb) –Rock cools, heavy metals settle to bottom From contact metamorphism (Pb, Cu, Zn) –Heat changes chemical composition to ore From hydrothermal solutions creating contact metamorphism – Minerals dissolve into solution, solution enters cracks, new minerals form and precipitate out into “veins” From moving water –Fragments settle out as placer deposits
Minerals and Their Uses MetallicUses Hematite and Magnetite (iron)making steel Galena (lead)car batteries; solder Gold, silver, platinumelectronics; dental; coins; jewelry; utensils; bowls Chalcopyrite (copper)wiring; coins; jewelry; ornaments Sphalerite (zinc)brass; galvanization of steel Non-metallicUses Diamond (carbon)drills; saws; jewelry Graphite (carbon)pencils; paint; lubricants; batteries Calcitecement; building stone Halite (salt)food preparation; food preservation; de-icers Kaolinite (clay)ceramics; cement; bricks Quartz (sand)glass Sulfurgunpowder; medicines; rubber Gypsumplaster and wallboard
Mining Removing resources faster than nature can replace them –Subsurface –Surface –Placer –Undersea
Nonrenewable Energy Used faster than can be replenished or is not likely to be replenished (limited) Fossil fuels –Formed from remains of living things –Coal –Petroleum –Natural gas –Oil traps (shale)
Coal Massive plant deposits Carbonization of peat Produces methane, carbon dioxide and coal in the absence of oxygen (swamps)
Lignite (brown coal) in the Dakotas
Strip mining soft coal (80% C) in Wyoming
High grade anthracite
Petroleum Part of carbon cycle also Liquid hydrocarbons from converted plant and animal remains Natural gas = gaseous hydrocarbons Often found together with water
Oil Shale Impervious rocks like shale trap oil and gas in crests or upwarps of rock layers. A=anticline trap. R=reef trap. S=stratigraphic trap
Nuclear Energy Fission is the splitting of atoms Releases tremendous amounts of energy that bind individual atoms together 1,000,000X stronger than chemical bonds
Fusion Power Fusion of hydrogen nuclei to form helium 15 million degrees C Cold fusion ?
Geothermal Solar Hydropower Biomass Wind
Geothermal Steam generated from underground heat sources Advantages? Disadavantages?
Solar energy Passive systems – sun room, etc Advantages/disadvantages?
Solar Energy Active solar – collectors/photovoltaic cells
Hydropower Water moves turbines generating electricity Advantages/disadvantages?
Sea power, too! Tidal and wave generator
Biomass Decomposition or processing of organic wastes create substances which may be burned as fuel E.g., trees, manure, sawdust, garbage, straw, paper Advantages/disadvantages
Biomass Generator Waste wood in chip form
Windpower Moving air moves blades of turbine generating electricity Advantages/disadvantages? Wind farm
Resources and Conservation Weigh options; positive vs. negative Choose cleanest available option Regulate, clean up and reclaim Resources used for more than just energy, so……… Conserve all resources Uses of minerals in your home