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Writing a composition based on a graphic, we should first of all understand the meaning the graph (table) conveys, and then give an accurate and clear description of the graph (table). The next step is to generalize about the graph (table) -— interpret and analyze it. Finally, we should make a sound conclusion based on the graph (table). Write a passage based on the graph (table).

Family Bank Deposits in China’s Cities and Towns Write a passage based on the graph (table). Example: YearAverage Family DepositsRMB (yuan) 19851351134.8 billion 19907869757.3 billion 200034602569.7 billion

Description of the table: The period 1985 — 2000 had a great increase in family bank deposits in China’s cities and towns. In 1985, the average family deposits was 1351 yuan while in 2000 it reached 3460 yuan. The total bank deposits in 2000 was 19 times as much as it was in 1985. Write a passage based on the graph (table).

Generalization — interpretation and analysis: Several factors may have contributed to this change. Firstly, the family income has greatly increased and people have more spare money to deposit in the bank. Secondly, people want to deposit money to buy more expensive items such as houses and cars. Thirdly, banks are still thought of as the safest place to deposit money. More and more people are willing to deposit money in banks instead of other investment such as stock exchange and future investment. Write a passage based on the graph (table).

Making a sound conclusion: From the above table we can predict that the family income will continue to increase and that people will have even more money to deposit in the bank. Write a passage based on the graph (table).

Writing a composition based on a graphic, we should first of all understand the meaning the graph (table) conveys, and then give an accurate and clear description of the graph (table). The next step is to generalize about the graph (table) -— interpret and analyze it. Finally, we should make a sound conclusion based on the graph (table). Write a passage based on the graph (table).

Describing graph 1.From the table (graph) it can be seen (shown, calculated) … 2. According to the table (graph) … 3. X is much …than Y in … 4. Compared with … Useful expressions and patterns used for presenting tables or graphics:

Interpreting graph 1.Several factors may contribute to … 2.One of the causes of … is … 3.One consequence of … is … Useful expressions and patterns used for presenting tables or graphics:

Conclusion from graph 1.In conclusion, we can / may say that … 2.Finally, it can / may be said that … 3.Therefore, it can be concluded … Useful expressions and patterns used for presenting tables or graphics:

Write an essay based on the graph below. The suggested TITLE is: Car Accidents Declining in Chongqing City. Remember that your composition must be written according to the following outline:

1. Rise and fall of the rate of car accidents as indicated by the graph; 2. Possible reason(s) for the decline of car accidents in the city; 3. Your predictions of what will happen.

Car accidents declining in Chongqing City According to the graph, we can see that the number of car accidents in Chongqing city fluctuated considerably during the year 2000. The first two months of 2000 showed an increasing trend, moving from 22 accidents in January to 32 in March. Accidents decreased steadily over the following 3 months to only 26 incidents in June. The months of July and August saw a second sudden increase, numbering 33 and 39 accidents respectively. After August the situation steadily improved, with accident numbers declining to a minimum of 16 in December.

These fluctuations can be explained by weather and road conditions. The increase in accidents evidenced in March can be attributed to the excessive rain that came in early spring, making the roads muddy and slippery. The peak in accidents in August is related to the heat and humidity of the summer months, making drivers drowsy and impatient. Improved weather conditions and the completion of two new roads obviously improved traffic and driving conditions in the autumn and winter months, leading to the strong decline of accidents during that period.

Based on the information presented in this graph, I would expect the following year to have similar fluctuations in its numbers of accidents, in variation with the weather. However, I would also expect the overall number of accidents to be lower due to the existence of two new roads, therefore improving the traffic conditions all year round.

A questionnaire is a printed form containing a set of questions, especially one addressed to a statistically significant number of subjects as a way of gathering information for a survey. The following is a Questionnaire for Psychological Survey that has been filled in.

Instructions Almost all of the questions asked in this survey use a seven-point scale as the method of response. This means you will see something that looks like this under every statement: Strongly Disagree: 1 Disagree: 2 Somewhat Disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 Agree: 5 Somewhat Agree: 6 Strongly Agree : 7 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

The number that you select is meant to indicate response points on a scale ranging from strongly disagreeing with the prior statement to strongly agreeing with the statement. It might help to think about the different points on the scale as meaning 1. At home, work, or school, I find my mind wandering from tasks that are uninteresting or difficult. 1 2 3 √4 5 6 7 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

2. I find it difficult to read written material unless it is very interesting or very easy. 1 √2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Especially in groups, I find it hard to stay focused on what is being said in conversations. 1 2 3 4 √5 6 7 4. I am irritable, and get upset by minor annoyances. √1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I say things without thinking, and later regret having said them. 1 2 3 4 5 √6 7 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

2. I find it difficult to read written material unless it is very interesting or very easy. 1 √2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Especially in groups, I find it hard to stay focused on what is being said in conversations. 1 2 3 4 √5 6 7 4. I am irritable, and get upset by minor annoyances. √1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I say things without thinking, and later regret having said them. 1 2 3 4 5 √6 7 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

6. I make quick decisions without thinking enough about their possible bad results. 1 2 3 4 5 6 √7 7. My relationships with people are made difficult by my tendency to talk first and think later. 1 2 3 4 5 √6 7 8. My moods have highs and lows. 1 2 3 4 √5 6 7 9. I have trouble planning in what order to do a series of tasks or activities. 1 2 √3 4 5 6 7 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

10. When I do poorly on an exam or paper, my self-esteem suffers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 √7 Nationality (country of birth): British Sex (Male/Female): Male Age: 25 How many years of Education have you completed? Put 12 for High School Diploma Put 16 for college diploma (bachelor’s degree). Put 20 for doctorate degree (Ph.D., M.D., etc). Education: 16 (To be continued on next page.) Sample

Comments: I like this kind of survey. But would you give me the result or the analysis as quickly as possible? I also like the other kind of survey such as personality survey or self-perception survey. Exercises Sample

Ex. 18 Fill in the following questionnaire for personality inventory, and then make your own questionnaire about the way people learn English or any other matter you are interested in.

Instructions Personality Inventory Here are a number of characteristics that may or may not apply to you. For example, do you agree that you are someone who likes to spend time with others? Please choose the appropriate number to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with that statement. Strongly Disagree: 1 Disagree: 2 Somewhat Disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 Agree: 5 Somewhat Agree: 6 Strongly Agree :7 (To be continued on next page.)

The number that you select from are meant to indicate response points on a scale ranging from strongly disagreeing with the prior statement to strongly agreeing with the statement. It might help to think about the different points on the scale as meaning. I see myself as Someone Who … 1. is talkative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. tends to find fault with others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. is depressed, blue 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (To be continued on next page.)

4. is helpful and unselfish with others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. is curious about many different things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. is relaxed, handles stress well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. is a reliable worker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. can be tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. likes to cooperate with others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (To be continued on next page.)

10. is sophisticated in art, music, or literature 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nationality (country of birth): Sex (Male/Female): Age: How many years of Education have you completed? Put 12 for High School Diploma Put 16 for college diploma (bachelor’s degree). Put 20 for doctorate degree (Ph.D., M.D., etc). Education: Comments: