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Sentences & Maps & Readings Sergio Pizziconi. Plan of the day Plan - Review - A survey on made-in-Italy abroad - Structured lexicon (clarification) -

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Presentation on theme: "Sentences & Maps & Readings Sergio Pizziconi. Plan of the day Plan - Review - A survey on made-in-Italy abroad - Structured lexicon (clarification) -"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sentences & Maps & Readings Sergio Pizziconi

2 Plan of the day Plan - Review - A survey on made-in-Italy abroad - Structured lexicon (clarification) - Keys - Relative clauses - Your Projects - Review - A survey on made-in-Italy abroad - Structured lexicon (clarification) - Keys - Relative clauses - Your Projects EXTRA-CLASS work: Read Chp 2 cases 1 (AMWAY) and 5 (BIC) [MARK relative clauses] Keep on working on your CVs and cover letter [try to make the sample letter in the text-book YOUR OWN letter] Keep working on your project. Baffa & Pennino

3 Review: Phonology 1/1 Vowels: exercises from /i/ to /a/ and from /u/ to / ɒ / (lowering your jaw) from /i/ to /u/ mind driven; puff of air (see IPA chart). // Where accent falls is relevant: 1) OBject (n.) – obJECT (v.), 2) if lost, stress the first syllable, you’re likely to sound right. // Stress movement shortens/weakens previously stressed vowels (also in writing): proNOUNce  pronunCIAtion // This Miss /s/ unvoiced These Ms. /z/ voiced// “gh” mute (though, thought) OR /f/ (rough, tough)

4 Review: Morphology 1/1 ADJ+ly  ADV; N+ly  ADJ // V+er  N(s.o./s.t. does V) // To+N(and most words)  V (google  to google; wow  to wow) // V + ance/ence  N (differ+ence, perfom+ance) // Help+less antonym help+ful // Adj+ en  V (to make s.o./s.t Adj) // Adj(max2syll.) + er  Adj (comparative: more Adj) Adj(max2syll.) + est  Adj (superlative: most Adj) BUT: good – better – best; bad – worse – worst // Singular: Thesis, Analysis, Hypothesis, Axis /s/ unvoiced Plural: Theses, Analyses, Hypotheses Axes /z/ voiced // Datum (sing.) Data (pl.) Criterion, phenomenon (sing.) Criteria, phenomena (pl.)

5 Review: Syntax 1/3 Verbs: transitive Vs. intransitive (Direct object, Indirect object, Oblique object)// passive Vs. active (mentioned)// AUXILIARY verb for the perfect tenses (actually, aspect) ALWAYS to have (e.g., Things have changed) BUT: passive voice (e.g., Rules were changed by the CEO) or few constructions (e.g., are you finished?) // Phrasal verbs. Verb+ ADV or Prep. To bring about = to cause, to engender (causare, determinare) // Typical declarative sentence structure: Subj + Verb +….. Typical negative: Subject + do/does/did + not+ V(base form) Typical question: Do/Does/Did + Subject + V(base form) N.B. When some sort of auxiliary is already in the sentence USE IT instead of adding to do Emphatic statement Subj +do/does/did +V(base form) // What brings about unemployement? (what = SUBJECT) What does unemployment bring about? (what = ????) WRONG: I’m interesting in fashion RIGHT: ????

6 Review: Syntax 2/3 Skoda is…, Italy/France/Japan is… [WITHOUT article] BUT The United States of America, The United Kingdom, The Netherlands // Once upon a time there was a small village in the country. The village was… [see vignette below] In light of (mainly US) In the light of (mainly UK) [see FOEs for possessive case and article]// TRANSITIVE: to raise (raised – raised); to lay (laid – laid) INTRANSITIVE: to rise (rose – risen); to lie (lay – lain) (lying) N.B.: to lie (to say something untrue) (lied – lied) (lying)

7 Review: Syntax 3/3 Syntax: Modal verbs: can, may, will, shall, must, could, might, would, should + BARE INFINITIVE (without to) Interrogative: MODAL + Subj + BARE INFINITIVE (must I go?) Negative: Subj + MODAL + not + BARE INFINITE (I mustn’t go, I cannot go OR I can’t go, I won’t go) They do not take to before or after: WRONG To may, to must, to could… WRONG WRONG I can to go, you may to talk… WRONG They do not take –s for 3° person singular WRONG he cans do, she mays do… WRONG They have no tense it’s a matter of distance from reality: Next year, I am/will be/can be/ may be/could be/might be in the UK I want TO focus/analyze I would like TO focus/analyze

8 Review: Pragmatics 1/1 Pragmatics: Do not pick on students or class fellows. //“See you later.”// Language varies across jobs. //Think it over before saying “No, this is wrong” Recommended: “Very interesting point/question. Let me point out though that…” or some sort of hedging (softening expression).// FORMAL: Dr. Pizziconi, your course is interesting [NOT: his/her]. INFORMAL: Sergio, your course is interesting. {“On a first name basis” “May I call you Sergio?”}.// How is it going? How (are) you doing? What’s up? Wassup? Sup?  It’s always Good.// Expectation of truthful statement. // Lag time between turns: When asking for questions, wait for a longer time.// Greetings (see next slide)//

9 Review: Pragmatics (Appendix) Pragmatics: InformalFormal GreetingsSup? Wassup? What’s up? How you doing? How is it going? How are you doing ? Good morning/afternoon/e vening Intro“(very) nice/glad/pleased to meet you! How do you do? Parting after first meeting (very) nice/glad/pleased meeting you!

10 Review: Tools 1/1 Tools: Also, the financial and legal dictionaries within and the Idioms section. // Check for the frequency of sentences googling them in quotes “……..” // Semantics of prototypes // Google advanced search: with pdf and site:.edu (US universities) or.ac.edu (UK universities) SUNECO’s library’s link to “online sources” (Open access journals)

11 FOEs 1/4 - Information (uncountable: much information NOT many informations, NOT an information) -Economy Vs Economics - Security (against criminal actions) Vs Safety (against dangerous actions) - Across (time, space whether real or abstract) Vs Through (space; means/tool) - Frequent (a bar, a restaurant) Vs attend (a course/program/school) -I study English Vs I study the English language -Aim/Attempt at (+ N; V-ing) OR to (+ V-base form) - A + consonant sound! OR pronounced h : a house, a university An + vowel sound! OR mute h: an unpredictable even, an hour.

12 FOEs 2/4 - I’m graduated FROM Aversa high school I graduated FROM/AT Aversa high school - Such as (listing examples) as (in the function of) - Comparison and manner: As (+entire clause) like (+noun) -Wal-Mart is one of the largest employers in the US. In fact it’s the largest (  A dire il vero) -Industry usually means productive sector. Plant, factory (are the words for the place where things are manufactured) -When a word is not used because of its meaning but as a word to be dealt with, mark it somehow: The verb can expresses…; The verb “can” expresses…; The verb can expresses

13 FOEs 3/4 What’s wrong in the sentence below? – Is more correct to use “may” to mean permission. You need a subject! Io sono d’accordo  I agree with+N/ to +Vbase form (clause)…. [NOT: I am agree] A Facebook page is/isn’t useful to keep in touch [NOT for to keep in touch] Possessive case: The doctor’s house Vs X Dr. Smith’s house The consumer’s choice Vs The consumers’ choice BUT The child’s toy Vs The children’s toy BUT X Giordano’s book Vs The Giordano book

14 FOEs 4/4 (charts) Fall – fell – fallen WRONG: his trend is regular RIGHT: ???? ITA: media  ENG: mean (on average) Price varies according to volume WRONG: It is steadily for the first part RIGHT: It is steady. It levels steadily. It is steadily high. WRONG: After there is a slowly fall RIGHT: ???? WRONG: Before it varies RIGHT: ???? PREPOSITIONS AprilMay June IN June ON May 23rd DURING the month AT the end of June

15 Survey on made-in-Italy abroad A study by Walter Giordano, Laura Di Ferrante and I (OR myself) 5 Italian products marketed abroad. Stage 1: survey on the qualities of made-in-Italy products https://it.surveymonkey.com/s/LSWABC14

16 Structured lexicon

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20 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) Looking good isn't important, it's everything

21 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) Looking good isn't important, it's everything SUBJ

22 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) By getting the mix right, the company ensures that its products reach the market segment it is aiming the brand at

23 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) HOW By getting the mix right, the company ensures that its products reach the market segment it is aiming the brand at [the mkt segm.] at which it is aiming the brand [the mkt segm.] D.O.

24 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman)) The key is to combine the ingredients to get the right cake for the right occasion

25 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) The key is to combine the ingredients to get the right cake for the right occasion ATT WHY

26 Keys: Relative Clauses (Ben Sherman) … as far as the marketing mix is concerned, it has got the balance right

27 Keys: Sentences (Ben Sherman) …as far as the marketing mix is concerned, it has got the balance right On WHAT CONDITION

28 General structure of the sentence S V (D.O.) (I.O.) Why? Where? When? How? On what condition? (Att) Links within the text About the relation between interlocutors CircumstancesTextual markers

29 Refreshing What sentence constituent is the underlined subordinate clause replacing? – I think (that) you can do excellent projects – Io penso che … – Can you replace “that” (“che”) with “which” (“il/la/i/le quale/i”)? What’s the difference between the two uses of “honestly” below? – Honestly, I don’t think you can win the game – I don’t think you can honestly win the game

30 Refreshing: Relative clauses We have already sold the books that we received XXXX yesterday We have already sold the books that XXXX were delivered yesterday A Main Clause with a Noun Phrase A relative pronoun A clause with a missing element A Main Clause with a Noun Phrase A relative pronoun A clause with a missing element

31 Refreshing: relative clauses Omitted relative pronoun: – From AMWAY: These distributors sell to people they know or meet. Whiz (omitted which and auxiliary to be): – From BIC: Most large companies produce a variety of goods and services XXX XXX designed to meet customers’ needs… Fused relative pronoun: – From BIC: This case study shows how BIC understands product life cycles

32 Refresh: Relative clauses Try to figure out what the pair below has to do with relative clauses: Restrictive Vs Non-restrictive The car that is parked in front of the department is mine My car, which is parked in front of the department, is a FIAT

33 Sets of personal pronouns and possessive Personal Pr. subject I you he she it we you (all) they who Personal Pr. Non - subject me you him her it us you (all) them whom Reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves Possessive Adjectives my your his her its our your their Possessive Pronouns mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

34 Possessive My Your His Her Its Our Your Their Luke’s mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs Tony’s car is affordableis expensive

35 MUSTs & MUST-NOTs MINIMUM MUSTs MUST rephrase MUST cite sources MUST circumscribe your scope MUSTs for “GOOD/HARD WORK” assessment MUST carry out YOUR OWN analysis MINIMUM MUST-NOTs MUST NOT copy and paste MUST NOT hide sources MUST NOT write your paper in the slides MUST-NOTs for “GOOD/HARD WORK” assessment MUST NOT just repeat what other scholars wrote

36 In-class activity TV Intro - Cheers (USA, ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1irjgfMC3A Sonic premium beef hot dogs accents https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWOzuvdZ6J8 Explain the connection between Cheers’ intro and AMWAY general strategy 3 lines: explain the connection between Sonic’s campaign and BIC product life cycle strategy


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