Presentation on theme: "FILM OF THE 1920’s. 1920’S Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years. Most US film production at."— Presentation transcript:
1920’S Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years. Most US film production at the start of the decade occurred in or near Hollywood on the West Coast, although some films were still being made in New Jersey and in Astoria on Long Island (Paramount). By the mid-20s, movies were big business (with a capital investment totaling over $2 billion) with some theatres offering double features. By the end of the decade, there were 20 Hollywood studios, and the demand for films was greater than ever. Most people are unaware that the greatest output of feature films in the US occurred in the 1920s and 1930s (averaging about 800 film releases in a year) - nowadays, it is remarkable when production exceeds 500 films in a year. Even the earliest films were organized into genres or types, with instantly-recognizable storylines, settings, costumes, and characters. The major genre emphasis was on swashbucklers, historical extravaganzas, and melodramas, although all kinds of films were being produced throughout the decade.
The Major Film Studios: The Big Five The studio system was essentially born with long-term contracts for stars, lavish production values, and increasingly rigid control of directors and stars by the studio's production chief and in-house publicity departments. After World War I and into the early 1920s, America was the leading producer of films in the world.
Warner Brothers was incorporated in 1923 by Polish brothers (Jack, Harry, Albert, and Sam). In 1925, Warner Brothers merged with First National, forming Warner Bros.-First National Pictures. The studio's first principal asset was Rin Tin Tin. It became prominent by 1927 due to its introduction of talkies (The Jazz Singer (1927)) and early 30s gangster films. It was known as the "Depression studio." In the 40s, it specialized in Bugs Bunny animations and other cartoons.
Paramount Adolph Zukor's Famous Players (1912) and Jesse Lasky's Feature Play - merged in 1916 to form Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. It spent $1 million on United Studios' property (on Marathon Street) in 1926. The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation became Paramount studios in 1927, and was officially named Paramount Pictures in 1935. Its greatest silent era stars were Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, and Rudolph Valentino; Golden Age stars included Mae West, W.C. Fields, Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, and director Cecil B. DeMille.
RKO evolved from the Mutual Film Corporation (1912), was established in 1928 as a subsidiary of RCA. It was formed by RCA, Keith-Orpheum Theaters, and the FBO Company (Film Booker's Organization) - which was owned by Joseph P. Kennedy (who had already purchased what remained of Mutual). This was the smallest studio of the majors. It kept financially afloat with top-grossing Astaire-Rogers musicals in the 30s, King Kong (1933), and Citizen Kane (1941). At one time, RKO was acquired by eccentric millionaire Howard Hughes.
MGM MGM, first named Metro-Goldwyn Pictures, was ultimately formed in 1924 from the merger of three US film production companies: Metro Pictures Corporation (1916) Goldwyn Pictures Corporation (1917) Louis B. Mayer Pictures Company (1918) The famous MGM lion roar in the studio's opening logo was first recorded and viewed in a film in 1928. Irving Thalberg (nicknamed the 'boy wonder') was head of production at MGM from 1924 until his death in 1936. Its greatest early successes were The Big Parade (1925), Broadway Melody (1929), Grand Hotel (1932), Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), A Night at the Opera (1935), The Good Earth (1937), Gone With the Wind (1939), The Wizard of Oz (1939), as well as Tarzan films, Tom and Jerry cartoons, and stars such as Clark Gable, Greta Garbo, and Spencer Tracy.
FOX founded in 1912 by NY nickelodeon owner William Fox (originally a garment industry worker). Its first film was Life's Shop Window (1914). In 1935, it became 20th-Century Fox, formed from the merger of two companies: 20th Century Pictures Company (founded in 1933 by Darryl F. Zanuck, the head of production at Warners and Joseph Schenck, brother of Nicholas Schenk, president of Loew's, the parent company of MGM) Fox Film It became most known for Fox Movietone news and then B- westerns; it was also famous for Shirley Temple films in the mid-30s and Betty Grable musicals in the 40s.
THE THREE MINOR FILM STUDIOS Three smaller, minor studios were dubbed The Little Three. Although they were not as elaborate as the “Big 5” they still hung in their and can be seen today.
UNIVERSAL PICTURES Founded by Carl Laemmle in 1912. It was formed from a merger of Laemmle's own IMP - Independent Motion Picture Company (founded in 1909) with Bison 101, the U. S. production facilities of French studio Éclair, Nestor Film Co., and several other film companies. Its first successes were W. C. Fields and Abbott and Costello comedies, the Flash Gordon cereal, and Woody Woodpecker cartoons.
UNITED ARTISTS Formed in 1919 by movie industry icons Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks Sr., Charlie Chaplin, and director D.W. Griffith as an independent company to produce and distribute their films. United Artists utilized an 18-acre property owned by Pickford and Fairbanks, known as the Pickford-Fairbanks Studio, and later named United Artists Studio in the 1920s.
COLUMBIA Founded in 1920 by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn, and Joseph Brandt, and officially named Columbia in 1924. Their studios opened at the old location of Christie-Nestor Studios. It established prominence with It Happened One Night (1934), Rita Hayworth films, Lost Horizon (1937), The Jolson Story (1946), and Batman cereals.
GRAUMAN’S THEATRES Grauman's Chinese TheatreImpresario Sid Grauman built a number of movie palaces in the Los Angeles area in this time period: The Million Dollar Theater - the first movie palace in Los Angeles, opened in February, 1918 with 2,345 seats, and premiered the William S. Hart western film The Silent Man (1917) The Egyptian Theatre - opened in 1922 with 1,760 seats; it was the first major movie palace outside of downtown Los Angeles, and noted as having Hollywood's first movie premiere; its opening film was Robin Hood (1922) that starred Douglas Fairbanks; the theatre's creation was inspired by the discovery of King Tut's tomb that same year. The now-famous Chinese Theater, with 2,258 seats, opened in Hollywood - in May, 1927 with the premiere of Cecil B. De Mille's King of Kings (1927). STILL AROUND TODAY!
PICKFORD AND FAIRBANKS Two of the biggest silent movie stars of the era were Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford. Pickford was dubbed "America's Sweetheart" and the most popular star of the generation. In 1916, she was the first star to become a millionaire. She was married to another great star, Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. Their wedding in late March, 1920 was a major cultural event. She was presented with a wedding gift a twenty-two room palatial mansion in the agricultural area of Beverly Hills - marking the start of the movement of stars to lavish homes in the suburbs of W. Hollywood and the making of Hollywood royalty. Robin Hood - 1922Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. also became an American legend after switching from light comedies and starring in a series of exciting, costumed swashbuckler and adventure/fantasy films, starting with The Mark of Zorro (1920 Another first occurred in 1926 - a Hollywood film premiere double-featured two films together: Fairbanks' The Black Pirate (1926) with early two-color Technicolor (and the superstar's most famous stunt of riding down a ship's sail on the point of a knife) and Mary Pickford's melodramatic film Sparrows (1926).
GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Artistic movement termed Expressionism was established in the prolific European film-making industry following World War I. It flourished in the 1920s, especially in Germany in a 'golden age' of cinema (often termed 'Weimar Cinema'), due to fewer restrictions and less strict production schedules. Expressionism was marked by stylization, dark shadows and dramatic chiaroscuro lighting, visual story-telling, grotesque characters, distorted or slanted angular shots (of streets, buildings, etc.) and abstract sets. In the early 1920s, three nightmarish, German expressionistic films were to have a strong and significant influence on the coming development of U.S. films in the 30s-40s - notably the horror film cycle of Universal Studios in the 30s, and the advent of film noir in the 1940s: 1) Robert Wiene's surrealistic fantasy/horror film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919-20) - the earliest and most influential of German Expressionistic cinema 2) F. W. Murnau's classic vampire film (the first of its kind) with actor Max Schreck - an adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula novel titled Nosferatu, A Symphony of Horrors (1922) (aka Nosferatu, Symphonie des Grauens) 3) Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler (1922) (aka Doktor Mabuse der Spieler) introduced the director's evil genius character
IMPORTS FROM ABROAD Destined to encourage the viewing of foreign-language films, English subtitles were put on the German musical Two Hearts in Waltz Time (1930) by Herman Weinberg. It was the first film to be subtitled for release in the United States. Some of the best artists, directors, and stars (such as Pola Negri, Bela Lugosi, Peter Lorre and Greta Garbo) from European film-making circles were imported to Hollywood and assimilated there as emigrants.
IMPORTS FROM ABROAD A number of early directors in Hollywood were hired artists from abroad - including successful German directors F. W. Murnau (invited to Hollywood by William Fox for his first Fox film - the critically-acclaimed Sunrise (1927), Fritz Lang, Josef von Sternberg and Ernst Lubitsch (he directed his first American film, Rosita (1923) starring Mary Pickford. Fritz Lang's last major silent film was the futuristic drama Metropolis (1927) - the expensive film enriched cinema in years to come with its innovative techniques, futuristic sets and Expressionistic production design, and allegorical study of the class system.
ERICH von STROHEIM Austrian-born director Erich von Stroheim's style was more harsh and European than the works of other imported directors. He had begun as an assistant director to D. W. Griffith. His specialty was the melodramatic portrayal of a decadent Europe with audacious scenes of sexuality. His brooding and expensive Foolish Wives (1922) was the longest commercially-made American film to be released uncut at 6 hours and 24 minutes in Latin America, but it was severely edited to a 10-reel version for general release.
COMEDY IN THE 20’S It was a great era for light-hearted silent comedy, with the triumvirate of humorists: Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, and Harold Lloyd, and the early popularity of Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle until a scandal destroyed his career in 1921. Fatty Arbuckle - the first of the silent comedians to direct his own films, starting with Barnyard Flirtations (1914). His teaming with Mabel Normand at Keystone, in a series of "Fatty and Mabel" films, were lucrative for the studio. formed his own production company ("Comique Film Corporation") with producer Joseph Schenck.
COMEDY IN THE 20’S Chaplin – “The Pilgrim” “The Gold Rush” “The Circus” Buster Keaton - (The Great Stone Face) in Sherlock, Jr. (1924) (Keaton's first solo directorial work), “The Navigator” (1924), the Civil War epic “The General” (1927)