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The Hollywood Studio System, Swedish Cinema & German Cinema Jaakko Seppälä

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Presentation on theme: "The Hollywood Studio System, Swedish Cinema & German Cinema Jaakko Seppälä"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hollywood Studio System, Swedish Cinema & German Cinema Jaakko Seppälä

2 The Great War The First World War began in August 1914 Before the war French, Italian and Danish films dominated world film markets The war ended film production in many countries Film production continued on a small scale when it became evident that the war would go on for years Hollywood studios took over national markets – A great demand for entertainment in war-weary Europe American production values were high but the films were sold cheaply

3 The Hollywood Production System American films made profit already in the U.S. In the mid-1910s the Independents became the system Feature film was the main product – Stars made each film an unmissable attraction Specialists were trained to assist the director to make movies faster Studios resembled factories in many ways The shooting script as a blueprint for making a movie The production system evolved to make regular profit

4 Hollywood: Distribution and Markets Adolph Zukor showed Hollywood how to fully exploit factory-like production Zukor merged a number production companies and distribution company Paramount Zukor bought hundreds of film theatres He was backed up by Wall Street His studio began to block book films In the 1920s a small number of vertically integrated companies came to dominate and define Hollywood

5 Adolph Zukor (1873-1976)

6 The Studio System Before the 1930s Paramount Loew’s/MGM Fox Warner Bros. RKO Universal, Columbia and United Artists

7 The Classical Hollywood Cinema Cinema had become increasingly oriented towards storytelling By the late 1910s filmmakers had worked out a system of formal principles – the classical Hollywood style A film should guide the spectator’s attention making all aspects of the story as clear as possible Film style was to enhance narrative clarity Films freed themselves from dependence upon other media and could now tell stories cinematically The classical Hollywood style has changed very little

8 The Golden Age of Swedish Cinema Svenska Biografteatern was formed in 1907 In 1912 George af Klercker, Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström were hired Sweden’s neutrality in the Great War gave gave this national cinema a boost In the late 1910s Sweden was a film empire Swedish style: northern landscapes and use of local literature, costumes and customs A Major alternative to classical Hollywood cinema Victor Sjöström: restrained acting, scenes staged in depth, nature depicting emotions, grim consequences of actions

9 Greta Garbo (1905-1990)

10 German Cinema before Expressionism German film industry began to grow in 1913 Outstanding genres: the suspense drama and the detective film (modern technology, chase scenes) Autorenfilm was German equivalent of Film d’Art The Student of Prague (1913) – Autoren film with fantasy elements (later to be important) In 1916 Germany banned all film imports This ban stimulated domestic film industry German cinema prospered in artificial isolation from 1916 to late 1920

11 Harry Piel (1892-1963)

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