Presentation on theme: "Wound infection. Wound infection has a significant impact on economic and Patient outcomes (IWJ 2008), However it is often misdiagnosed and mistreated."— Presentation transcript:
Wound infection has a significant impact on economic and Patient outcomes (IWJ 2008), However it is often misdiagnosed and mistreated.
“Wound infection scares me on a daily basis. It is one of the most challenging aspects of wound management today - a major contributor to healthcare costs around the world, and the cause of significant distress to patients and carers.” Professor Keith Harding
Statistics associated with HAIs 10% of patients get a HAI 5000 patients every year die of HAI – 5000 patients die every year of “superbug” infection Deaths due to MRSA are increasing Costs £1 billion per year 15% of HAI are preventable
How does infection occur? This depends on the type of bacteria. The number of bacteria The host reaction (ie the patients ability to fight infection).
All individuals are covered with a range of bacteria known as normal body flora, these are usually not harmful. When a wound occurs bacteria enters the skin and may cause an infection.
The presence of bacteria Contamination – Presence of bacteria, without multiplication Colonisation – Multiplication, but no host reaction Infection – Deposition and multiplication of organisms in tissue, with an associated host reaction ( Ayton, 1985)
Bacteria Causing Wound Infection Prolong Healing By destroying cells by competing for available oxygen supplies By releasing toxins that damage tissue causing necrosis & pus formation By releasing toxins into the blood stream.
Why do wounds become infected? Conditions for bacterial growth time temperature food moisture A wonderful culture medium
Who is at risk of infection?
Is Patient at risk of Infection? Reduced resistance Malignancy Medical condition - Diabetes Medication Psychological Position of Wound Type of tissue present Chronic wound Size of wound (Cutting et al 1994) Reduced tissue perfusion
Tissue types NecrosisSlough
How do we recognise of wound infection?
Signs of infection Erythema Heat Swelling Pain Loss of function Patient may have a temperature or be generally unwell – these patients need fast assessment!!
Signs of infection SUPERFICIAL BRIDGING FRIABLE TISSUE BLEEDS EASILY PAIN IN WOUND DELAY IN HEALING ODOUR Increase in exudate and colour
You may be asked to perform a wound swab Clean wound first to remove surface debris. Using gentle pressure rub the swab in a zig zag motion over the wound bed This is known as the levine technique Ensure that the form has been filled in with correct clinical information
Prevention is better than cure How can we help in preventing wound infection? Remember your patient is watching you!!!
Infection control is paramount Handwashing
Gloves and Aprons Protects you and your patient!!!
Infection control is paramount Clean non touch technique for dressing change =chronic wounds or aseptic technique = acute wounds
What treatments might your patient be prescribed?
Using antimicrobials Antimicrobials are agents that either kill or inhibit the growth and division of micro – organisms. They include antibiotics (which act on specific cellular target sites) antiseptics, disinfectants and other agents (which act on multiple cellular target sites).
Antibiotics act on ….
Antiseptics act on...
Types of treatments available Systemic Topical – Debridement (WBP) – Antibiotic – Antimicrobial Iodine Silver Honey PHMB Chlorhexidine
Your patient may be displaying signs of infection If you have identified some of the above symptoms please get the patient assessed ASAP by a GP or Nurse in charge. Failure to identify and treat wound infection may have serious consequences for your patient.