4 Based on Shaping “Reward direction not perfection” – R. Lavoie Movement toward stimulus control – in other words, movement away from teacher prompting & toward responding to natural cues in the environmentSetting events (the example of not getting enough sleep) can influence how interventions work
5 Discrimination Training Teach a student to first respond to the appropriate stimulus (quarter only)Then teach in the presence of another stimulus (a dime) – the bigger the discrimination between the two at the outset the betterThen teach the dimeThen introduce other coins, etc.Reinforcement is available only for correct responses – i.e., “Show me the ….”It’s important to eventually to teach many examples & nonexamples (coins with the same value that look different – for example quarters representing different states – old quarters & the new quarters)
6 Discrimination Training When an entire class of stimuli have been learned & can be responded to correctly you have taught a “concept” – coins/money
8 Instructional Procedures Modeling – reduces learning time – it’s why learning imitation is an important skill in early childhood – it is also why putting students with disabilities only with other students with disabilities is likely to provide fewer models of appropriate behaviorModels for students should be as much like the student as possible & have prestige (e.g., older student)Looking at oneself on a video doing something correctly can also be helpful to studentsUsing verbal directions while modeling can help students internalize the verbal steps to guide themselves – Vygotsky & scaffolding of instruction
11 Task Analysis Breaking a skill down into its component parts Each step serves as the prompt for the next step to occurHelps break complex skills down into smaller stepsMaking a peanut butter & jelly sandwich
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