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PowerPoint Slides to Accompany Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Seventh Edition Paul A. Alberto Anne C. Troutman ISBN: 0-13-172203-4 Alberto & Troutman.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Slides to Accompany Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Seventh Edition Paul A. Alberto Anne C. Troutman ISBN: 0-13-172203-4 Alberto & Troutman."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Slides to Accompany Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Seventh Edition Paul A. Alberto Anne C. Troutman ISBN: Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 9 Differential Reinforcement: Antecedent Control and Shaping Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

3 Symbols S R+ :Positive Reinforcement S D :Discriminative Stimuli S ∆ : A Second Stimulus (S-deltas) “A certain response results in S R+ in the presence of S D ’s...The same response is not reinforced in the presence of S ∆ ” What’s most important here is to understand how the environmental cues influence our behavior – this is why classroom routines & rules are important in classroom management It is also why it is easier to begin as a “tough” teacher & show leniency later than to do the reverse Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 Based on Shaping “Reward direction not perfection” – R. Lavoie Movement toward stimulus control – in other words, movement away from teacher prompting & toward responding to natural cues in the environment Setting events (the example of not getting enough sleep) can influence how interventions work

5 Discrimination Training Teach a student to first respond to the appropriate stimulus (quarter only) Then teach in the presence of another stimulus (a dime) – the bigger the discrimination between the two at the outset the better Then teach the dime Then introduce other coins, etc. Reinforcement is available only for correct responses – i.e., “Show me the ….” It’s important to eventually to teach many examples & nonexamples (coins with the same value that look different – for example quarters representing different states – old quarters & the new quarters)

6 Discrimination Training When an entire class of stimuli have been learned & can be responded to correctly you have taught a “concept” – coins/money

7 Instructional Procedures Prompts – prompts can come in many forms Rules can serve as prompts – “nouns are people, places, or things” Instructions can serve as prompts – “get out your books & turn to page 181” – it is always good to check for comprehension & perhaps have one or more students demonstrate following directions Hints can serve as prompts – “that coin is worth 25 cents” Prompts can be pre-recorded & played or they can be learned by the student Visual prompts can be pictures, rules posted, symbols, signals, etc. Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

8 Instructional Procedures Modeling – reduces learning time – it’s why learning imitation is an important skill in early childhood – it is also why putting students with disabilities only with other students with disabilities is likely to provide fewer models of appropriate behavior Models for students should be as much like the student as possible & have prestige (e.g., older student) Looking at oneself on a video doing something correctly can also be helpful to students Using verbal directions while modeling can help students internalize the verbal steps to guide themselves – Vygotsky & scaffolding of instruction

9 Summary Chart for Fading Prompts Prompts Increasing Assistance Least Assistance Least-to-Most Prompts Start with the least intrusive prompt, provide more intrusive prompts if necessary. Graduated Guidance Reduce full physical guidance to “shadowing” (following movement but not touching the student), a light touch at a distance from the part of the body performing the behavior. Time Delay May be constant or progressive. Wait several seconds before prompting to allow the student to respond. Decreasing Assistance Most-to-Least Prompts Start with the most powerful prompt available. When the target behavior occurs reliably, move to the next less intrusive prompt. Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

10 Guidelines for Effective Prompting Prompts should focus students’ attention on the discriminative stimulus, not distract from it. Prompts should be as weak as possible. Prompts should be faded as rapidly as possible. Unplanned prompts should be avoided Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

11 Task Analysis Breaking a skill down into its component parts Each step serves as the prompt for the next step to occur Helps break complex skills down into smaller steps Making a peanut butter & jelly sandwich

12 Backward and Forward Chaining Backward Chaining Components of a chain are acquired in reverse order. Begin by teaching the last component first and then gradually add other components one at a time. Forward Chaining Begin by teaching the first link in the task chain until it is mastered. Once the first step is mastered, begin instruction on the next step. The student may be required to perform previously learned steps each time the task is presented, or each step may be taught separately. Total task presentation – Present all steps each time the task is performed Pages 329 & 331 show how to collect data with a task analysis & using prompting – the criterion is usually that the target behavior will be performed independently Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.


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