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Overview of Conditioning. Need to Examine Behavior Look at the behavior of an organism’s interaction with its environment Displacements in space through.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of Conditioning. Need to Examine Behavior Look at the behavior of an organism’s interaction with its environment Displacements in space through."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Conditioning

2 Need to Examine Behavior Look at the behavior of an organism’s interaction with its environment Displacements in space through time Temporal locus Temporal extent Repeatability Results in a measurable change in some aspect of the environment

3 Response Class Are a group of responses with the same function Each response in the group produces the same effect on the environment

4 Repertoire of Responses Are all behaviors a person can do in a situation Usually are knowledge and skills an organism has learned that are relevant to a particular setting or tasks Are very relevant to ABA

5 Environment Behavior occurs within an environmental context Cannot be emitted in an environmental void or vacuum

6 Stimulus events Formal Are the physical features of the stimulus Temporal Occur with respect to a behavior of interest Functionally What are the stimulus effects on behavior

7 Stimulus Class Groups of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements Occur in one of more of these dimensions Formal dimensions Temporal locus Behavioral functions of stimulus changes

8 Formal Dimensions of Stimuli Are descriptions, measurements, or manipulations of the stimulus Can be based on size, color, intensity, etc. Stimuli can be Social Nonsocial

9 Temporal Locus of Stimuli Behavior is affected by stimulus changes that: Occur prior to (Antecedent) Are provided after the behavior (Consequent)

10 Antecedent Stimuli Conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior Learners do not need to be aware of them to effect behavior Play a critical part in learning and motivation

11 Consequent Stimuli Are stimuli that follow a behavior of interest Immediate consequent stimuli are very important Influence motivational states Influence future behavior Usually have greater impact than later larger consequent stimuli Relate to self-management issues

12 Functions of Stimulus Changes Impacts behavior Are best understood through a functional analysis Immediate control Delayed control No apparent effect

13 Behavior from Stimulus Changes Can be immediate but are temporary Increases or decreases the current behavior Can be delayed and become relatively permanent

14 Examples

15 Types of Behavior 1.Respondent Behavior Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli Occurs because of the stimulus that precedes it Something in your eye - blink Tap on the knee – Jerk knee Often are designed to protect against harmful stimuli Are often reflexive in nature Habituation Gradually diminishing response strength

16 Example Pavlov Digestive systems of dogs Animals salivated every time lab assistant opened the cage door to feed them

17 2. Operant Behavior Behavior whose frequency is determined primarily by consequent stimuli Stimuli are selected Behavior can be shaped Behavior is maintained by consequence stimuli and schedule of reinforcement or punishment Can occur with any organism and in any environment.

18 Points to Note Consequences only affect future behavior Consequences select response classes, no individual responses Can narrow the response class Immediate consequences have the greatest impact vs. delayed consequences Self-management issue

19 Consequences Select Any Behavior Reinforcement and punishment are equal opportunity selectors Importance of temporal relations Operant conditioning occurs automatically and in all environments Occurs constantly

20 What is Reinforcement and Punishment Are procedures Can be used to increase or decrease a behavior Uses reinforcers and punishers Are things – STIMULI Use results in changes in behavior Four types


22 Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement Is the most important principle of behavior Is the key element to most behavior change programs Punishment Can be very effective if used correctly Often is not used correctly Often creates numerous ethical concerns Can have side effects Reason Reinforcement is used more often

23 Reinforcement Positive Add a stimulus following a response and beh. Increases Good behavior followed by CCC, more good beh. Negative Remove a stimulus following a response and the beh. increases Take oxycodone to stop pain, next time, take oxycodone again. Result, cycle increases use

24 PUNISHMENT Positive Give a stimulus following a response and beh. Decrease Stick finger in light socket – get zapped, don’t repeat Negative Remove a positive stimulus following a response and beh. decreases Speeding down road – cop gives you a ticket, don’t speed anymore

25 Motivation to Behave Motivation can alter the current value of stimulus changes as reinforcement or punishment Results from Satiation Deprivation

26 Discriminated Operants Behavior occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than other conditions Relates to Stimulus Control Are differential rates of operant responding observed in the presence or absence of antecedent stimuli Occurs due to pairings from the past Ultimately, antecedents acquire the ability to control operant behavior

27 Principles of Behavior Describes functional relations between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables (b = fx) Occurs through: Thorough generality across individual organisms, species, settings, behaviors Empirical generalization inferred from many experiments Describe how behavior works Reinforcement, punishment, extinction

28 Behavior Change Tactics Are research-based Are consistent methods for changing behavior Are derived from basic principles of behavior Are general across subjects, settings, and or behaviors Ultimately warrant codification & dissemination Are the technological aspects of ABA

29 Points to Note Principles Describe how behavior works Are lawful relationships Behavior change tactics Are how ABA professionals use the principles Used to help people learn and use socially significant behaviors

30 Three-Term Contingency Antecedent (A) – Behavior (B) – Consequence (C) Is the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior All ABA procedures involve the manipulation of one or more components

31 Human Behavior Is highly complex Use large repertoires of response chains, verbal behavior Analysis of control complicated by Individual differences in histories of reinforcement Practical, ethical, logistical, etc. issues

32 Summary and Conclusions Lots of variables are related to conditioning Need to understand the principles of conditioning to modify behavior in any environment. Techniques are very powerful Must use ethical principles

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