Presentation on theme: "Migration Chapter 3 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1Migration Chapter 3 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural LandscapeJames M. RubensteinChapter 3MigrationPPT adapted from Abe Goldman
2Terms Migration: a type of relocation diffusion Emigration: from a location (country)Immigration: to a location (country)Other forms of migrationTranshumance (seasonal w/animals or crops)Circulation: daily, monthly, annuallyMigration within a country or stateState (sovereign state): a political unit (formal region) ruled by a government, i.e. a countryNation State: State (ie a formal region) containing individuals of one cultural or ethnic identity.
5Circulation: Move or Die Corsica and malaria until the end of WWII
6Ogaden Transhumance by Cristina Alaman Moving or Death - TodayOgaden Transhumance by Cristina AlamanA nomadic Somali farmer leads his herd to a distant water point in the frequently drought-stricken Somali region of Ethiopia.
7Circulation: annual and urban Moving day in Montreal*Moving into college
8Annual Circulation of people, materials and ideas July 1 is Québec’s annual moving day, mandated by legislation in 1973 decreeing that all leases end on the first day of July to avoid disruptions in the school year for transferring children. An estimated 100,000 people move on this day every year!Circulation of material and peopleMontreal officials said cleanup efforts following moving day will take a while and cost about $10 million. (2008)Snowbirds?
9Why People Migrate (from one region to another, or from one state to another) Reasons for migratingPush and pull factors• Economic/overpopulation: (jobs – Mexicans in the US , Africans to Europe)• Cultural: slavery and political instability• Environmental: towards ‘attractive’ regions, away from unattractive/dangerous regions
12Center of Population in the U.S. Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.
13End Location– End point of a migration may not be what people had in mind due to Intervening obstaclesphysical (Oregon trail people who only got as far as Baker City, Oregon or places in Ohio; people who get swindled and left somewhere other than their destination)Visas
15Distance of migration Internal migration International migration rural to urban (ongoing in the US)Cities to suburbs (very much in the 1970s and 80s – now reversing)Regional (eg Katrina)International migrationForcedVoluntary (??!!)
16Voluntary migrantsPrimarily from countries in stage 2 of their development
18Characteristics of migrants* GenderLargely males looking for workBut change to this pattern over time, and with reason, for the migrants leaving their home countryAge and educationYoung adultsless well-educated.Do you agree?* According to Ravenstein, 1885 “The Laws of Migration”
19In reality … Characteristics Many poor, uneducated, unskilled Often enterprising, working age looking for opportunityMany also highly educated and skilled (brain drain)
21Segment of NASA JPL phone book Abakians, HenryAbarientos, JasonAbbey, William J.Abbod, Mike G.Abbott, Elsa A.Abbott, Tracey S.Abdou, Wedad A.Abdul-Malik, Rukiah S.Abdus-Samad, Anwar JAbeyta, Pedro L.Abid, Mohamed M.Abilleira, FernandoAbohebeish, EmanAbraham, Douglas S.Abraham, JohnAbrahamian, TomikAbrahamy, Ezra R.Abrami, ArbiAbramovici, AlexanderSegment of NASA JPL phone book
22RefugeesGeneva convention Under the 1951 Convention on Refugees and the 1967 Protocol, a nation must grant asylum to refugees and cannot forcibly return refugees to their nations of origin.Refugee (definition?)Asylum (definition?)
23Refugees: Sources and destinations Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees, 2001.
24Contemporary Global Migration Patterns 10% US population are immigrants16% Canadian population are immigrants50% middle eastern populations are immigrantsFig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
25U.S. States and Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
26Immigration to the USWaves of European immigrants in the 1800s (hence US has European cultural background)RecentlyAsiaLatin AmericaSee Pg 87, fig 3-8 in 10th ed. of text
27Migration often goes unrecorded as with undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona And increasingly immigration into Mexico from countries in South AmericaFig. 3-7: The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.
28Undocumented immigrants: complex issues Human trafficking
29Undocumented migrants in the USA Why are migrants undocumented?What happens if there are a lot of undocumented migrants?What happens if all of a sudden there are only 1% of current numbers of immigrants?
30Issues facing Migrants (documented and otherwise) LanguageAwareness of rightsCulture shockAttitudes to immigrantsLiving away from families and cultureScapegoats for unemployment and crimesOthering as a process resulting in discriminationOther?
31RefugeesRefugees1951 Geneva convention defines a refugee as“A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.”Somali refugees in Kenya from AlJazeera EnglishVoice of America story on Iraqi refugees