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Migration Chapter 3 An Introduction to Human Geography

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1 Migration Chapter 3 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape James M. Rubenstein Chapter 3 Migration PPT adapted from Abe Goldman

2 Terms Migration: a type of relocation diffusion
Emigration: from a location (country) Immigration: to a location (country) Other forms of migration Transhumance (seasonal w/animals or crops) Circulation: daily, monthly, annually Migration within a country or state State (sovereign state): a political unit (formal region) ruled by a government, i.e. a country Nation State: State (ie a formal region) containing individuals of one cultural or ethnic identity.

3 Transhumance Southern France

4 Also other things! bees Transhumance festival

5 Circulation: Move or Die
Corsica and malaria until the end of WWII

6 Ogaden Transhumance by Cristina Alaman
Moving or Death - Today Ogaden Transhumance by Cristina Alaman A nomadic Somali farmer leads his herd to a distant water point in the frequently drought-stricken Somali region of Ethiopia.

7 Circulation: annual and urban
Moving day in Montreal* Moving into college

8 Annual Circulation of people, materials and ideas
July 1 is Québec’s annual moving day, mandated by legislation in 1973 decreeing that all leases end on the first day of July to avoid disruptions in the school year for transferring children. An estimated 100,000 people move on this day every year! Circulation of material and people Montreal officials said cleanup efforts following moving day will take a while and cost about $10 million. (2008) Snowbirds?

9 Why People Migrate (from one region to another, or from one state to another)
Reasons for migrating Push and pull factors • Economic/overpopulation: (jobs – Mexicans in the US , Africans to Europe) • Cultural: slavery and political instability • Environmental: towards ‘attractive’ regions, away from unattractive/dangerous regions

10 Pull: Selling the West

11 Selling the West

12 Center of Population in the U.S.
Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.

13 End Location – End point of a migration may not be what people had in mind due to Intervening obstacles physical (Oregon trail people who only got as far as Baker City, Oregon or places in Ohio; people who get swindled and left somewhere other than their destination) Visas

14 Obstacles

15 Distance of migration Internal migration International migration
rural to urban (ongoing in the US) Cities to suburbs (very much in the 1970s and 80s – now reversing) Regional (eg Katrina) International migration Forced Voluntary (??!!)

16 Voluntary migrants Primarily from countries in stage 2 of their development

17 Irish Potato famine 1840-60 Resource base abruptly dwindled
Strong push factor

18 Characteristics of migrants*
Gender Largely males looking for work But change to this pattern over time, and with reason, for the migrants leaving their home country Age and education Young adults less well-educated. Do you agree? * According to Ravenstein, 1885 “The Laws of Migration”

19 In reality … Characteristics Many poor, uneducated, unskilled
Often enterprising, working age looking for opportunity Many also highly educated and skilled (brain drain)

20 Wide range of immigrants

21 Segment of NASA JPL phone book
Abakians, Henry Abarientos, Jason Abbey, William J. Abbod, Mike G. Abbott, Elsa A. Abbott, Tracey S. Abdou, Wedad A. Abdul-Malik, Rukiah S. Abdus-Samad, Anwar J Abeyta, Pedro L. Abid, Mohamed M. Abilleira, Fernando Abohebeish, Eman Abraham, Douglas S. Abraham, John Abrahamian, Tomik Abrahamy, Ezra R. Abrami, Arbi Abramovici, Alexander Segment of NASA JPL phone book

22 Refugees Geneva convention Under the 1951 Convention on Refugees and the 1967 Protocol, a nation must grant asylum to refugees and cannot forcibly return refugees to their nations of origin. Refugee (definition?) Asylum (definition?)

23 Refugees: Sources and destinations
Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees, 2001.

24 Contemporary Global Migration Patterns
10% US population are immigrants 16% Canadian population are immigrants 50% middle eastern populations are immigrants Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.

25 U.S. States and Immigrant Destinations
Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.

26 Immigration to the US Waves of European immigrants in the 1800s (hence US has European cultural background) Recently Asia Latin America See Pg 87, fig 3-8 in 10th ed. of text

27 Migration often goes unrecorded as with undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona
And increasingly immigration into Mexico from countries in South America Fig. 3-7: The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.

28 Undocumented immigrants: complex issues
Human trafficking

29 Undocumented migrants in the USA
Why are migrants undocumented? What happens if there are a lot of undocumented migrants? What happens if all of a sudden there are only 1% of current numbers of immigrants?

30 Issues facing Migrants (documented and otherwise)
Language Awareness of rights Culture shock Attitudes to immigrants Living away from families and culture Scapegoats for unemployment and crimes Othering as a process resulting in discrimination Other?

31 Refugees Refugees 1951 Geneva convention defines a refugee as “A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.” Somali refugees in Kenya from AlJazeera English Voice of America story on Iraqi refugees

32 The process of ‘othering’

33 Léon Cogniet ( ) The Egyptian Expedition Under the Command of Bonaparte

34 Further issues Remittances (vs. foreign aid) “Compassion fatigue”
Approaches: USA “Melting pot” or Canadian “cultural mosaic”?

35 Migration issues in Europe
Europe as a destination 16 million immigrants 7-10 percent of host country population Problems: religion, education Contributions: entrepreneurs

36 A partial solution to undocumented migrants?: Guest Workers
Fig. 3-9: Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.

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