2 A Thought .....The only difference between a diamond and a lump of coal is that the diamond had a little more pressure put on it.
3 What is Stress?An individual’s adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person’s well-being.A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with a n opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
4 General Adaptation Syndrome The stress experience was first documented by Dr. Hans Selye in 1936.People have a fairly consistent physiological response to stressful situation. This response is called General Adaptation Syndrome“Every stress leaves an indelible scar, and the organism pays for its survival after a stressful situation by becoming a little older.” - Hans Selye
6 General Adaptation Syndrome (cont..) Stage 1. Alarm Reaction: Any physical or mental trauma will trigger an immediate set of reactions that combat the stress. Because the immune system is initially depressed, normal levels of resistance are lowered, making us more susceptible to infection and disease. If the stress is not severe or long-lasting, we bounce back and recover rapidly.
7 General Adaptation Syndrome (cont..) Stage 2: Resistance: Eventually, sometimes rather quickly, we adapt to stress, and there's actually a tendency to become more resistant to illness and disease. Our immune system works overtime for us during this period, trying to keep up with the demands placed upon it. We become complacent about our situation and assume that we can resist the effects of stress indefinitely. Therein lies the danger. Believing that we are immune from the effects of stress, we typically fail to do anything about it.
8 General Adaptation Syndrome (cont..) Stage 3: Exhaustion: Because our body is not able to maintain homeostasis and the long-term resistance needed to combat stress, we invariably develop a sudden drop in our resistance level. No one experiences exactly the same resistance and tolerance to stress, but everyone's immunity at some point collapses following prolonged stress reactions. Life sustaining mechanisms slow down and sputter, organ systems begin to break down, and stress-fighting reserves finally succumb to what Hans Selye called "diseases of adaptation."
9 A Model Of Stress Perception Social support Belief in locus of control POTENTIAL SOURCES CONSEQUENCESINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCESPerceptionSocial supportBelief in locus of controlJob experienceHostilitySelf-efficacyPHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMSHeadacheHigh blood pressureHeart diseaseENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSEconomic uncertaintyPolitical uncertaintyTechnological changesORGANISATIONAL FACTORSTask demandRole demandInterpersonal demandPSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMSAnxietyDepressionDecrease in job satisfactionEXPERIENCED STRESSPERSONAL FACTORSFamilyEconomicsPersonalityBEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMSProductivityAbsenteeismturnover
10 Sources of Stress Environmental factors Economic uncertainty Political uncertaintyTechnological changesTerrorismOrganizational factorsTask demandRole demandInterpersonal demand
11 Sources of Stress(cont..) Personal factorsFamilyEconomicPersonality
12 Is STRESS good or bad for us ? Some amount of stress is essential for us to excel in life. This is good stress or “EUSTRESS”But when stress is too much then it reduces performance. This is bad stress or “DISTRESS ”
13 Inverted-U Hypothesis: Stress and Performance:Inverted-U Hypothesis:
14 Stress and Performance (cont..) Inverted-U Hypothesis:Eustress
15 Stress and Performance (cont..) Inverted-U Hypothesis:Distress
16 Consequences of Stress Physiological Symptoms – increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, increased blood pressure, headache, heart strokes and attacks, ulcers, changed metabolism.Psychological Symptoms-anxiety,depression,panic attacks, feeling of guilt, angry outbursts, mood swings, irritability, resentment, low self esteem and self worth , isolation.Behavioral symptoms – low productivity, absenteeism, high turnover, changes in eating habits, increased smoking or alcohol consumption, rapid speech, fidgeting, sleep disorders.
17 Managing StressIndividual Approaches-implementing, time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network.Organizational Approach-improvement selection and job placement, training, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, increased employee involvement, improved organizational communication, offering sabbaticals, corporate wellness programs.