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Job Design and Stress Management Perilaku Organisasi
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Objective of HR Strategy To manage labor and design jobs so people are effectively and efficiently utilized Use people efficiently within constraints Provide reasonable quality of work life © 1995 Corel Corp.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Work Stress and Its Management
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Work Stress and Its Management Constraints Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire. Demands The loss of something desired.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors –Economic uncertainties of the business cycle –Political uncertainties of political systems –Technological uncertainties of technical innovations –Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress Organizational Factors –Task demands related to the job –Role demands of functioning in an organization –Interpersonal demands created by other employees –Organizational structure (rules and regulations) –Organizational leadership (managerial style) –Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d) Individual Factors –Family and personal relationships –Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity –Personality problems arising for basic disposition Individual Differences –Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. –Greater job experience moderates stress effects. –Social support buffers job stress. –Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. –Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Consequences of Stress High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. A Model of Stress
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Stress Individual Approaches –Implementing time management –Increasing physical exercise –Relaxation training –Expanding social support network
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Stress Organizational Approaches –Improved personnel selection and job placement –Training –Use of realistic goal setting –Redesigning of jobs –Increased employee involvement –Improved organizational communication –Offering employee sabbaticals –Establishment of corporate wellness programs
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Design The process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks. Job specialization Job expansion Psychological components Self-directed teams Motivation and incentive systems Ergonomics and work methods
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Specialization Involves Breaking jobs into small component parts Assigning specialists to do each part Greater dexterity & faster learning Less lost time changing jobs or tools Use more specialized tools Pay only for needed skills
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Process of adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Methods Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation Employee empowerment
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Job enlargement, Increasing the number of tasks a worker performs but keeping all of the tasks at the same level of difficulty and responsibility; also called horizontal job loading. Job enrichment, Increasing a worker’s responsibility and control over his or her work; also called vertical jab loading. Ways of enriching jobs: Allow workers to plan their own work schedules Allow workers to decide how the work should be performed Allow workers to check their own work Allow workers to learn new skills
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion GeriatricsPediatricsMaternity Job Rotation
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Control Decision-Making Planning Employee empowerment
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Psychological Component Individuals have values, attitudes, and emotions that affect job results Example: Work is a social experience that affects belonging needs Effective worker behavior comes mostly from within the individual Scientific management argued for external financial rewards First examined in ‘Hawthorne studies’
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Hawthorne studies (psychological component) Conducted in late 1920’s Western Electric Hawthorne plant Showed importance of the individual in the workplace Showed the presence of a social system in the workplace Conclusions; Increased productivity was due to workers’ receiving attention, and social pressure caused workers to produce at group-norm level.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Directed Teams Group of empowered individuals working together for a common goal May be organized for short-term or long-term objectives Reasons for effectiveness –Provide employee empowerment –Provide core job characteristics –Meet psychological needs (e.g., belonging)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Design Continuum Increasing reliance on employees’ contribution and increasing acceptance of responsibility by employee Specialization Specialization Enlargement Enlargement Enrichment Enrichment Empowerment Empowerment Self-directed Teams Self-directed Teams
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation and Money Taylor’s scientific management (1911) –Workers are motivated mainly by money –Suggested piece-rate system Maslow’s theory (1943) –People are motivated by hierarchy of needs, which includes money Herzberg (1959) –Money either dissatisfies or is neutral in its effect
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Monetary Incentives Bonuses: Cash & stock options Profit sharing: Distribution of profits Gain sharing: Reward for company performance (e.g., cost reduction) Incentive systems –Measured daywork: Pay based on standard time –Piece rate: Pay based on pieces done
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Ergonomics Study of work Also called ‘human factors’ Involves human-machine interface Examples –Mouse –Keyboard
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