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Job Design and Stress Management Perilaku Organisasi
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Objective of HR Strategy To manage labor and design jobs so people are effectively and efficiently utilized Use people efficiently within constraints Provide reasonable quality of work life © 1995 Corel Corp.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Work Stress and Its Management
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Work Stress and Its Management Constraints Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire. Demands The loss of something desired.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors –Economic uncertainties of the business cycle –Political uncertainties of political systems –Technological uncertainties of technical innovations –Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress Organizational Factors –Task demands related to the job –Role demands of functioning in an organization –Interpersonal demands created by other employees –Organizational structure (rules and regulations) –Organizational leadership (managerial style) –Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d) Individual Factors –Family and personal relationships –Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity –Personality problems arising for basic disposition Individual Differences –Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. –Greater job experience moderates stress effects. –Social support buffers job stress. –Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. –Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Consequences of Stress High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. A Model of Stress
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Stress Individual Approaches –Implementing time management –Increasing physical exercise –Relaxation training –Expanding social support network
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Stress Organizational Approaches –Improved personnel selection and job placement –Training –Use of realistic goal setting –Redesigning of jobs –Increased employee involvement –Improved organizational communication –Offering employee sabbaticals –Establishment of corporate wellness programs
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Design The process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks. Job specialization Job expansion Psychological components Self-directed teams Motivation and incentive systems Ergonomics and work methods
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Specialization Involves Breaking jobs into small component parts Assigning specialists to do each part Greater dexterity & faster learning Less lost time changing jobs or tools Use more specialized tools Pay only for needed skills
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Process of adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Methods Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation Employee empowerment
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Job enlargement, Increasing the number of tasks a worker performs but keeping all of the tasks at the same level of difficulty and responsibility; also called horizontal job loading. Job enrichment, Increasing a worker’s responsibility and control over his or her work; also called vertical jab loading. Ways of enriching jobs: Allow workers to plan their own work schedules Allow workers to decide how the work should be performed Allow workers to check their own work Allow workers to learn new skills
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion GeriatricsPediatricsMaternity Job Rotation
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Expansion Control Decision-Making Planning Employee empowerment
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Psychological Component Individuals have values, attitudes, and emotions that affect job results Example: Work is a social experience that affects belonging needs Effective worker behavior comes mostly from within the individual Scientific management argued for external financial rewards First examined in ‘Hawthorne studies’
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Hawthorne studies (psychological component) Conducted in late 1920’s Western Electric Hawthorne plant Showed importance of the individual in the workplace Showed the presence of a social system in the workplace Conclusions; Increased productivity was due to workers’ receiving attention, and social pressure caused workers to produce at group-norm level.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Directed Teams Group of empowered individuals working together for a common goal May be organized for short-term or long-term objectives Reasons for effectiveness –Provide employee empowerment –Provide core job characteristics –Meet psychological needs (e.g., belonging)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Design Continuum Increasing reliance on employees’ contribution and increasing acceptance of responsibility by employee Specialization Specialization Enlargement Enlargement Enrichment Enrichment Empowerment Empowerment Self-directed Teams Self-directed Teams
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation and Money Taylor’s scientific management (1911) –Workers are motivated mainly by money –Suggested piece-rate system Maslow’s theory (1943) –People are motivated by hierarchy of needs, which includes money Herzberg (1959) –Money either dissatisfies or is neutral in its effect
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Monetary Incentives Bonuses: Cash & stock options Profit sharing: Distribution of profits Gain sharing: Reward for company performance (e.g., cost reduction) Incentive systems –Measured daywork: Pay based on standard time –Piece rate: Pay based on pieces done
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Ergonomics Study of work Also called ‘human factors’ Involves human-machine interface Examples –Mouse –Keyboard
© 1997 Prentice-Hall, Inc Principles of Operations Management People & Work Systems Chapter 7.
Transparency Masters to accompany Heizer/Render – Principles of Operations Management, 5e, and Operations Management, 7e © 2004 by Prentice Hall, Inc.,
18–0 Stress Management 19-0 © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Stress and Conflict. Work Stress and Its Management Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S T E N T H E D I T I O N © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.
LECTURE 4 STRESS!. What Is Stress? What is Stress? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, a demand,
MOTIVATION. Defined as the psychological forces within a person that : determine 1 Intensity The effort of how hard people work 2 Direction Of business.
Motivation I: Needs, Job Design and Satisfaction Chapter Six.
7-1©2005 Prentice Hall 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Chapter 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Organizational Behavior 4th Edition JENNIFER.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.10 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 10 – Human Resources and Job Design Chapter 10 – Human Resources and Job Design © 2006 Prentice.
JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Chapter 2 1. JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN IMPORTANCE: 1.Job design can impact employee performance 2.Affect job satisfaction 3.Help.
Motivating Employees Chapter 12. Motivation The psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior.
How Does Motivation Work? Familiarity with the best-known theories can help supervisors think of ways to motivate employees. None of the theories are perfect,
Part IV: Managing Employees Introduction to Business 3e 10 Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved. Motivating Employees.
Motivation in Organizations Chapter 6. © Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 2 Learning Objectives 1. Define motivation and explain its importance in the field.
CHAPTER 13 STRESS. Introduction: A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what.
7-1©2005 Prentice Hall 7 Creating a Motivating Work Setting Chapter 7 Creating a Motivating Work Setting.
4-2 Motivation in Theory: What Makes Employees Try Harder Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Organizational.
1 © 2010 Nkumbwa™. All Rights Reserved. Job Design, Work Measurement and Labor Standards Eng. R. L. Nkumbwa™
Motivation Lecture 10. Motivation definition It is a set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways; It is a set of forces that cause people.
8 th edition Steven P. Robbins Mary Coulter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Motivating Employees This may sound soft and mushy, but happy.
Motivation The reason why people want to work. Incentives Encouragement Enthusiastic Drive.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Chapter SEVEN.
Motivating Employee Performance Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.16–1.
1-1©2005 Prentice Hall 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior.
MANPOWER PLANNING. DEFINATION The process of : o Forecasting o Developing o Controlling Ensures that right no. & right kind of people are at right place.
10-1. Business in a Changing World McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 Motivating the.
FHF Ferrell Hirt Ferrell M: Business 2 nd Edition.
9. CHAPTER 9 Stress and Work-Life Linkages Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman 2 Definition Stress: The experience of opportunities or threats that.
Chapter 13 Motivating Employees McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Motivation III Motivation in practice Organizational Behaviour The Individual.
1-1©2005 Prentice Hall Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior 4th Edition 1: Introduction to Organizational Behavior Chapter 1: Introduction.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–1 Organizational Behavior Modification Reinforcement theory (operant conditioning)Reinforcement theory (operant conditioning)
Chapter 8 Managing Change and Innovation Organizational change Organization development Stress: The aftermath of organizational change Stimulating innovation.
WEEK 3: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION BUSN 102 – Özge Can. What Motivates Employees to Peak Performance? Motivation The combination of forces that move individuals.
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Management and Organisational Behaviour 7th Edition PART.
POM - J. Galván 1 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Ch. 11: Human Resources and Job Design.
Lecture 7. Job Design is concerned with the way the elements in a job are organized.
JOB DESIGN,. JOB DESIGN Job design is a way of organising tasks, duties and responsibilities into a productive unit of the work. An outgrowth of job analysis.
7. CHAPTER 7 Motivation Tools I: Job Design and Goal Setting Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman 2 Definition Job Design: The process of linking specific.
8 Chapter Managing Change and Innovation Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1.
Motivation. Content Motivation theory: –Taylor –Maslow –Herzberg –Mayo Non monetary motivation: –Job enrichment –Job enlargement –Empowerment –Team Working.
The job characteristics model is a method of job design that focuses on the task and interpersonal demands of a job. 1)True 2)False.
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