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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

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Presentation on theme: "AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2 INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page orusing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES

3 CONTENTS Structure of alkanes Physical properties of alkanes Chemical properties of alkanes Breaking covalent bonds Chlorination via free radical substitution Cracking Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES

4 Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition of a covalent bond Be able to balance simple equations Be able to write out structures for hydrocarbons THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES

5 Generalmembers of a homologous series general formula is C n H 2n+2 - for non-cyclic alkanes saturated hydrocarbons - all carbon-carbon bonding is single bonds are spaced tetrahedrally about carbon atoms. Isomerismthe first example of structural isomerism occurs with C 4 H 10 BUTANE 2-METHYLPROPANE Structural isomers have the SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL FORMULA They possess different physical properties such as boiling point, melting point and density ALKANES

6 HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS The electronic configuration of a carbon atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1 1s 2 2s 2p

7 HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS The electronic configuration of a carbon atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1 1s 2 2s 2p If you provide a bit of energy you can promote (lift) one of the s electrons into a p orbital. The configuration is now 1s 2 2s 1 2p 3 1 1s 2 2s 2p The process is favourable because the of arrangement of electrons; four unpaired and with less repulsion is more stable

8 HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS IN ALKANES The four orbitals (an s and three p’s) combine or HYBRIDISE to give four new orbitals. All four orbitals are equivalent. Because one s and three p orbitals are used, it is called sp 3 hybridisation 2s 2 2p 2 2s 1 2p 3 4 x sp 3

9 In ALKANES, the four sp 3 orbitals of carbon repel each other into a TETRAHEDRAL arrangement with bond angles of 109.5º. Each sp 3 orbital in carbon overlaps with the 1s orbital of a hydrogen atom to form a C-H bond. THE STRUCTURE OF ALKANES 109.5º

10 Boiling pointincreases as they get more carbon atoms in their formula more atoms = greater intermolecular Van der Waals’ forces greater intermolecular force = more energy to separate the molecules greater energy required = higher boiling point CH 4 (-161°C) C 2 H 6 (-88°C) C 3 H 8 (-42°C) C 4 H 10 (-0.5°C) difference gets less - mass increases by a smaller percentage straight chains molecules have greater interaction than branched “The greater the branching, the lower the boiling point” Melting pointgeneral increase with molecular mass the trend is not as regular as that for boiling point. Solubilityalkanes are non-polar so are immiscible with water they are soluble in most organic solvents. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKANES

11 Introduction- fairly unreactive; (old family name, paraffin, meant little reactivity) - have relatively strong, almost NON-POLAR, SINGLE covalent bonds - they have no real sites that will encourage substances to attack them Combustion- make useful fuels - especially the lower members of the series - react with oxygen in an exothermic reaction complete CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) ——> CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) combustion incomplete CH 4 (g) + 1½O 2 (g) ——> CO(g) + 2H 2 O(l) combustion the greater the number of carbon atoms, the more energy produced BUTthe greater the amount of oxygen needed for complete combustion. Handy tip When balancing equations involving complete combustion, remember... every carbon in the original hydrocarbon gives one carbon dioxide and every two hydrogen atoms gives a water molecule. Put the numbers into the equation, count up the O’s and H’s on the RHS of the equation then balance the oxygen molecules on the LHS. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKANES

12 Processes involving combustion give rise to a variety of pollutants... power stationsSO 2 emissions produce acid rain internal combustion enginesCO, NOx and unburnt hydrocarbons Removal SO 2 react effluent gases with a suitable compound (e.g. CaO) CO and NOxpass exhaust gases through a catalytic converter Catalytic converters In the catalytic converter...CO is converted to CO 2 NOx are converted to N 2 Unburnt hydrocarbons are converted to CO 2 and H 2 O e.g.2NO + 2CO ———> N 2 + 2CO 2 catalysts are made of finely divided rare metals Rh, Pd, Pt leaded petrol must not pass through the catalyst as the lead deposits on the catalyst’s surface and “poisons” it, thus blocking sites for reactions to take place. POLLUTION

13 There are 3 ways to split the shared electron pair in an unsymmetrical covalent bond. UNEQUAL SPLITTING produces IONS known as HETEROLYSIS or HETEROLYTIC FISSION EQUAL SPLITTING produces RADICALS known as HOMOLYSIS or HOMOLYTIC FISSION If several bonds are present the weakest bond is usually broken first Energy to break bonds can come from a variety of energy sources - heat / light In the reaction between methane and chlorine either can be used, however... In the laboratory a source of UV light (or sunlight) is favoured. BREAKING COVALENT BONDS

14 TYPICAL PROPERTIES reactive species (atoms or groups) which possess an unpaired electron their reactivity is due to them wanting to pair up the single electron formed by homolytic fission (homolysis) of covalent bonds formed during the reaction between chlorine and methane formed during thermal cracking involved in the reactions taking place in the ozone layer FREE RADICALS

15 Reagentschlorine and methane ConditionsUV light or sunlight - heat is an alternative energy source Equation(s)CH 4 (g) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CH 3 Cl(g) chloromethane CH 3 Cl(g) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CH 2 Cl 2 (l) dichloromethane CH 2 Cl 2 (l) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CHCl 3 (l) trichloromethane CHCl 3 (l) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CCl 4 (l) tetrachloromethane Mixturesfree radicals are very reactive - they are trying to pair their electron with sufficient chlorine, every hydrogen will eventually be replaced. CHLORINATION OF METHANE

16 Reagentschlorine and methane ConditionsUV light or sunlight - heat is an alternative energy source Equation(s)CH 4 (g) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CH 3 Cl(g) chloromethane CH 3 Cl(g) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CH 2 Cl 2 (l) dichloromethane CH 2 Cl 2 (l) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CHCl 3 (l) trichloromethane CHCl 3 (l) + Cl 2 (g) ——> HCl(g) + CCl 4 (l) tetrachloromethane Mixturesfree radicals are very reactive - they are trying to pair their electron with sufficient chlorine, every hydrogen will eventually be replaced. MechanismMechanisms portray what chemists think is going on in the reaction, whereas an equation tells you the ratio of products and reactants. Chlorination of methane proceeds via FREE RADICAL SUBSTITUTION because the methane is attacked by free radicals resulting in hydrogen atoms being substituted by chlorine atoms. The process is a chain reaction. In the propagation step, one radical is produced for each one used CHLORINATION OF METHANE

17 Initiation Cl 2 ——> 2Cl RADICALS CREATED The single dots represent UNPAIRED ELECTRONS During initiation, the WEAKEST BOND IS BROKEN as it requires less energy. There are three possible bonds in a mixture of alkanes and chlorine Average bond enthalpy kJ mol -1 The Cl-Cl bond is broken in preference to the others as it is the weakest and requires requires less energy to separate the atoms.

18 CHLORINATION OF METHANE Propagation Cl + CH 4 ——> CH 3 + HCl RADICALS USED and Cl 2 + CH 3 ——> CH 3 Cl + Cl then RE-GENERATED Free radicals are very reactive because they want to pair up their single electron. They do this by abstracting a hydrogen atom from methane; a methyl radical is formed The methyl radical is also very reactive and attacks a chlorine molecule A chlorine radical is produced and the whole process can start over again

19 CHLORINATION OF METHANE Termination l + Cl ——> Cl 2 RADICALS REMOVED Cl + CH 3 ——> CH 3 Cl CH 3 + CH 3——> C 2 H 6 Removing the reactive free radicals brings an end to the reaction. This is not very likely at the start of the reaction because of their low concentration.

20 CHLORINATION OF METHANE Initiation Cl 2 ——> 2Cl radicals created Propagation Cl + CH 4 ——> CH 3 + HClradicals used and Cl 2 + CH 3 ——> CH 3 Cl + Cl then re-generated Termination Cl + Cl ——> Cl 2 radicals removed Cl + CH 3 ——> CH 3 Cl CH 3 + CH 3——> C 2 H 6 OVERVIEW Summary Due to lack of reactivity, alkanes need a very reactive species to persuade them to react Free radicals need to be formed by homolytic fission of covalent bonds This is done by shining UV light on the mixture (heat could be used) Chlorine radicals are produced because the Cl-Cl bond is the weakest You only need one chlorine radical to start things off With excess chlorine you get further substitution and a mixture of chlorinated products

21 Initiation Propagation Termination CHLORINATION OF METHANE RADICALS PRODUCED RADICALS USED AND REGENERATED RADICALS REMOVED

22 Further propagationIf excess chlorine is present, further substitution takes place The equations show the propagation steps for the formation of... dichloromethane Cl + CH 3 Cl ——> CH 2 Cl + HCl Cl 2 + CH 2 Cl ——> CH 2 Cl 2 + Cl trichloromethane Cl + CH 2 Cl 2 ——> CHCl 2 + HCl Cl 2 + CHCl 2 ——> CHCl 3 + Cl tetrachloromethane Cl + CHCl 3 ——> CCl 3 + HCl Cl 2 + CCl 3 ——> CCl 4 + Cl Mixtures Because of the many possible reactions there will be a mixture of products. Individual haloalkanes can be separated by fractional distillation. CHLORINATION OF METHANE

23 Involves the breaking of C-C bonds in alkanes Converts heavy fractions into higher value products THERMALproceeds via a free radical mechanism CATALYTICproceeds via a carbocation (carbonium ion) mechanism CRACKING THERMAL HIGH PRESSURE kPa HIGH TEMPERATURE °C to 900°C FREE RADICAL MECHANISM HOMOLYTIC FISSION PRODUCES MOSTLY ALKENES... e.g. ETHENE for making polymers and ethanol PRODUCES HYDROGEN... used in the Haber Process and in margarine manufacture Bonds can be broken anywhere in the molecule by C-C bond fission or C-H bond fission

24 Involves the breaking of C-C bonds in alkanes Converts heavy fractions into higher value products THERMALproceeds via a free radical mechanism CATALYTICproceeds via a carbocation (carbonium ion) mechanism CRACKING CATALYTIC SLIGHT PRESSURE HIGH TEMPERATURE °C ZEOLITE CATALYST CARBOCATION (IONIC) MECHANISM HETEROLYTIC FISSION PRODUCES BRANCHED AND CYCLIC ALKANES, AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS USED FOR MOTOR FUELS ZEOLITES are crystalline aluminosilicates; clay like substances

25 REVISION CHECK What should you be able to do? Recall and explain the physical properties of alkanes Recall the use of alkanes as fuels Recall and explain the different ways to break a covalent bond Write balanced equations representing combustion and chlorination Understand the conditions and mechanism of free radical substitution Recall the conditions and products from thermal and catalytic cracking CAN YOU DO ALL OF THESE? YES NO

26 You need to go over the relevant topic(s) again Click on the button to return to the menu

27 WELL DONE! Try some past paper questions

28 © 2003 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE THE END AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES

29 In the past, most important organic chemicals were derived from coal. Nowadays, natural gas and crude petroleum provide an alternative source. the composition of crude petroleum varies according to its source it is a dark coloured, viscous liquid consists mostly of alkanes with up to 40 carbon atoms, plus water, sulphur and sand can be split up into fractions by fractional distillation distillation separates the compounds according to their boiling point at each level a mixture of compounds in a similar boiling range is taken off rough fractions can then be distilled further to obtain narrower boiling ranges some fractions are more important - usually the lower boiling point ones high boiling fractions may be broken down into useful lower boiling ones - CRACKING CONTENTS PETROCHEMICALS

30 Boiling C’s per Name of Use(s) range / °C molecule fraction < LPG (LiquefiedCalor Gas Petroleum Gas)Camping Gas GASOLINEPetrol NAPHTHAPetrochemicals KEROSINEAviation Fuel GAS OILCentral Heating Fuel > LUBRICATING OIL Lubrication Oil > FUEL OILPower Station Fuel Ship Fuel > WAX, GREASECandles Grease for bearings > 400 > 50 BITUMENRoad surfaces Roofing CONTENTS PETROCHEMICALS


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