Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CRUDE OIL A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CRUDE OIL A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRUDE OIL A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2 CRUDE OIL INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at... All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

3 CONTENTS CONTENTS Origin of crude oil Fractional distillation Cracking CRUDE OIL For more detailed information on the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site. For more detailed information on the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site.

4 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

5 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

6 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. Other examplesAIRcontains different gases SMARTIEScontains different sweets CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

7 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged The oxygen in air behaves as oxygen The orange Smarties ® in SMARTIES ® taste of orange CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

8 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including filtration, chromatography, distillation and, for crude oil, fractional distillation. CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

9 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CONTAINS A VERY LARGE NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

10 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CONTAINS A VERY LARGE NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINS MAINLY HYDROCARBONS (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

11 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CONTAINS A VERY LARGE NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINS MAINLY HYDROCARBONS ALSO CONTAINS SULPHUR + SULPHUR COMPOUNDS IS A DARK COLOURED VISCOUS LIQUID CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

12 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CONTAINS A VERY LARGE NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINS MAINLY HYDROCARBONS ALSO CONTAINS SULPHUR + SULPHUR COMPOUNDS IS A DARK COLOURED VISCOUS LIQUID CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

13 CRUDE OIL IS A FOSSIL FUEL DERIVED FROM AN ANCIENT BIOMASS FOUND IN ROCKS IS A MIXTURE CONTAINS A VERY LARGE NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINS MAINLY HYDROCARBONS ALSO CONTAINS SULPHUR + SULPHUR COMPOUNDS IS A DARK COLOURED VISCOUS LIQUID CRUDE OIL WHAT IS IT?

14 FROM ORGANISMS WHICH LIVED MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO THEIR REMAINS WERE COVERED BY LAYERS OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK HEAT AND PRESSURE IN THE ABSENCE OF AIR CONVERTED THE REMAINS INTO FOSSIL FUELS GAS AND OIL ARE TRAPPED UNDERGROUND - THEY CAN’T GET THROUGH THE NON-POROUS LAYERS CRUDE OIL HOW WAS IT FORMED? OIL GAS DRILLING PIPE POROUS ROCK NON-POROUS ROCKS

15 CRUDE OIL CAN BE SPLIT INTO FRACTIONS FRACTIONS - GROUPS OF COMPOUNDS WITH SIMILAR BOILING POINTS THE PROCESS IS CALLED FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION CRUDE OIL HOW IS IT PROCESSED?

16 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

17 WHAT HAPPENS? THE DISTILLATION TOWER

18 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? CRUDE OIL IS FED INTO THE TOWER

19 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? THE CRUDE OIL IS HEATED UNTIL IT ALL TURNS TO GAS FURNACE

20 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? THE HOT GASES ENTER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TOWER FURNACE

21 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? THE HOT VAPOURS (GASES) PASS UP THE TOWER FURNACE

22 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? THE HOT VAPOURS (GASES) PASS UP THE TOWER. AS THE TRAVEL UP, THEY COOL DOWN. FURNACE

23 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? BITUMEN THE BITUMEN FRACTION CONTAINS THE LARGEST MOLECULES AND THEY HAVE THE HIGHEST BOILING POINTS – THEY TURN BACK TO LIQUID FIRST FURNACE

24 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES IN THE LUBRICATING OIL FRACTION ARE NOT AS LARGE AS THOSE IN THE BITUMEN FRACTION SO CONDENSE FURTHER UP THE TOWER FURNACE

25 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN AS THE REMAINING VAPOUR COOLS FURTHER FRACTIONS ARE COLLECTED THE LOWER THEIR BOILING POINT, THE FURTHER UP THE COMPOUNDS GO FURNACE

26 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN AS THE REMAINING VAPOUR COOLS FURTHER FRACTIONS ARE COLLECTED THE LOWER THEIR BOILING POINT, THE FURTHER UP THE COMPOUNDS GO FURNACE

27 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN AS THE REMAINING VAPOUR COOLS FURTHER FRACTIONS ARE COLLECTED THE LOWER THEIR BOILING POINT, THE FURTHER UP THE COMPOUNDS GO FURNACE

28 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN COMPOUNDS IN THE LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FRACTION HAVE VERY LOW BOILING POINTS AND DON’T TURN BACK TO THE LIQUID STATE FURNACE

29 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN FURNACE

30 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION ANIMATION

31 HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES HAVE FEWER CARBON ATOMS

32 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES ARE SMALLER

33 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES HAVE LOWER BOILING POINTS

34 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES ARE MORE VOLATILE VOLATILE = Having a low boiling point

35 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES ARE LESS VISCOUS VISCOUS = not very runny (a bit like syrup)

36 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES IGNITE MORE EASILY

37 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION HOW DO THE FRACTIONS DIFFER? PETROLEUM GAS PETROL PARAFFIN DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL BITUMEN MOLECULES REQUIRE LESS OXYGEN TO BURN PROPERLY The more carbon atoms there are the more oxygen you need

38 Boiling C’s per Name of Use(s) range / °C molecule fraction < LPGCalor / Camping Gas GASOLINEPetrol NAPHTHAPetrochemicals KEROSINEAviation GAS OILCentral Heating > LUBRICATING OIL Lubrication Oil > FUEL OILPower Stations, ships > WAX, GREASECandles, grease > 400 > 50 BITUMENRoad surfaces, Roofs FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

39 WHAT HAPPENS TO THE FRACTIONS? FRACTIONS ARE STILL MIXTURES DIFFERENT FRACTIONS ARE PUT TO DIFFERENT USES FRACTIONS CAN BE DISTILLED FURTHER SOME FRACTIONS ARE MORE VALUABLE THAN OTHERS THE HEAVIER FRACTIONS ARE LESS VALUABLE

40 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WHAT HAPPENS TO THE FRACTIONS? FRACTIONS ARE STILL MIXTURES DIFFERENT FRACTIONS ARE PUT TO DIFFERENT USES FRACTIONS CAN BE DISTILLED FURTHER SOME FRACTIONS ARE MORE VALUABLE THAN OTHERS THE HEAVIER FRACTIONS ARE LESS VALUABLE LARGER MOLECULES CAN BE BROKEN DOWN TO SMALLER ONES - THIS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

41 CRACKING

42 CRACKING WHY IS IT DONE? LARGER HYDROCARBON MOLECULES ARE LESS USEFUL THEY CAN BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER MOLECULES SMALLER MOLECULES ARE MORE USEFUL

43 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? LARGE HYDROCARBONS ARE VAPORISED (TURNED INTO GAS) LIQUID HEAT

44 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? LARGE HYDROCARBONS ARE VAPORISED (TURNED INTO GAS) LIQUID VAPOUR HEAT

45 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? LARGE HYDROCARBONS ARE VAPORISED (TURNED INTO GAS) THE VAPOURS ARE PASSED OVER A HOT CATALYST LIQUID VAPOUR HEATCATALYST

46 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? LARGE HYDROCARBONS ARE VAPORISED (TURNED INTO GAS) THE VAPOURS ARE PASSED OVER A HOT CATALYST BONDS ARE BROKEN AND SMALLER MOLECULES ARE MADE LIQUID VAPOUR SMALLER MOLECULES HEATCATALYST

47 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? LARGE HYDROCARBONS ARE VAPORISED (TURNED INTO GAS) THE VAPOURS ARE PASSED OVER A HOT CATALYST BONDS ARE BROKEN AND SMALLER MOLECULES ARE MADE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION (BREAKING UP BY HEATING) TAKES PLACE CATALYSTS HELP SPEED UP REACTIONS LIQUID VAPOUR SMALLER MOLECULES HEATCATALYST

48 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS

49 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS

50 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS

51 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS HYDROCARBONS WITH SINGLE C-C BONDS ARE CALLED ALKANES ALKANE

52 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS HYDROCARBONS WITH A DOUBLE C=C BOND ARE CALLED ALKENES ALKENE

53 CRACKING WHAT HAPPENS? MANY DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ARE PRODUCED BECAUSE THE MOLECULES CAN BREAK DOWN IN DIFFERENT WAYS HYDROCARBONS WITH SINGLE C-C BONDS ARE CALLED ALKANES HYDROCARBONS WITH A DOUBLE C=C BOND ARE CALLED ALKENES ALKANEALKENEALKANEALKENE

54 CRUDEOIL THE END ©2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING


Download ppt "CRUDE OIL A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google