2Group DynamicsHow individuals affect groups and how groups affect individualsSize of the group is significantDyad- 2 ppl smallest most fragile of all human groupingsTriad- 3 ppl bond between 2 of the members is stronger, someone left outAs more members are added stability increases but intimacy decreases
3Effects of Group Size on Behavior As it grows there is a diffusion of responsibilityThink about group work, the more people in the group the less you actually have to doAs it grows, the group loses it sense of intimacyGroup becomes more formalAs it grows, group tends to divide into smaller groupscliques
4Group LeadersPeople who influence the behavior, opinions, or attitudes of othersWho becomes a leader?People who are perceived by group members as strongly representing their values or as able to lead a group out of a crisis
5Types of leaders 2 types of leaders: 3 types of leadership styles: Instrumental (task-oriented)- try to keep the group moving toward its goalExpressive (socioemotional) those who are less likely to be recognized as leaders but help with the group’s morale3 types of leadership styles:Authoritarian leaders- those who give orders and don’t explain why they praise or condemn a person’s workDemocratic leaders- those who try and gain a consensus by explaining proposed actions, suggesting alternative approaches and giving facts as the basis for evaluationLaissez-faire leaders- those who are passive and give the group almost total freedom to do as they wish
16ResultsOf the fifty people tested, 33 percent always gave the incorrect answers at least half of the time because of peer pressure, even though they knew the answers were wrong. Only 25 percent always gave the right answer despite the peer pressure.
17Peer PressureA study by Dr. Soloman Asch indicated that people are greatly influenced by peer pressureThe group is so powerful that most people are willing to say things that they know are not true just to go along
18Think about these question: If the leader of your “clique” asked you to post a rumor on someone’s facebook wall, would you?If the leader of your “clique” asked you to fight someone, would you?If the leader of your “clique” asked you to execute someone would you?
20Power of AuthorityGroupthink- coined by Irving Janis to refer to the collective tunnel vision that group members sometimes developAs they begin to think alike, they become convinced that there is only one “right” viewpoint and a single course of actionComes with great consequencesPost 9/11 and Guantanamo Bay
21New Essay Questions (10 points) Identify your in-groups and your out-groups. How have your in-groups influenced the way you see the world? And what influence have your out-groups had on you?Milgram’s and Asch’s experiments illustrate the power of peer pressure. How has peer pressure operated in your life? Think about something that you did not want to do but did anyway because of peer pressure.