2Non Communicable Diseases WHAT IS IT?A disease that is not transmitted by another person, or a vector, or from the environment.Certain habits and behaviors can either increase or decrease the risk of these diseases.
3Non communicable Diseases Cancer: A group of diseases characterized by an uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells.Using your text on page 530 define the following terms:TumorBenignMalignant
4VocabularyTumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body.Benign – noncancerous; if you’re benign your fine!Malignant – cancerous
5Types of Cancer Lymphomas: cancers of the immune system. Leukemias: cancers of the blood-forming organs.Carinomas: cancers of the glands and body linings, including the skin and linings of the digestive tract and lungs.Sarcomas: Cancers of the connective tissue, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
6Risk Factors There is no known cause of cancer. Genetics – family historyEnvironment – food, water, soil, airLifestyles choices – sexual activity, drinking, smoking, drugsWhat is a Carcinogen???Carcinogen: A cancer causing substance.Tobacco useAlcohol useIllegal drug useSexually transmitted diseaseRadiation – ultraviolet rays from the sunDietary factors
7How can you reduce your risk of Cancer?? Practice abstinenceBe physically activeMaintain healthy weightEat nutritious foodsProtect your skin from the sunAvoid tobacco, drugs, and alcoholRecognize warning signs of cancerWhat type of cancer is most common in the US?SKIN CANCER
8THREE TYPES OF SKIN CANCER Basal Cell Carcinoma:Most commonUsually appears on face & earseasiest to detect & treatDoes not usually spread.Squamous Cell Carcinoma:Second most commonAppears on sun-exposed parts of bodyLikely to spread to areas beneath skin.Melanoma:Least common but most lethalUV radiation from sun or tanning beds can increase riskImportant to diagnose in early stagesApproximately 70% begin near in or near a moleHighest risk fair skin, freckles, light blue/green eyes.
9Warning Signs of Skin Cancer Asymmetrical: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the mole that does not produce matching halves.Border: Noncancerous moles have smooth edges, suspect moles often have irregular edges.Color: Be cautious of moles that are intensely black.Diameter: anything over 10 mm should be removed and checked.Evolving: if a mole is growing or changing in size, shape or elevation.
10Methods to Prevent Skin Cancer: Sun block- SPF 30 or greaterAvoid sun from 10 AM until around 4 PMWear light clothingWear a hat with a wide brimWear sunglasses with UV ProtectionDo not go indoor tanning- (it’s also bad for night vision)
11Warning Signs of Cancer: Change in bowel and bladder habitsA sore that does not healUnusual bleeding or dischargeThickening or lumpIndigestion or difficulty swallowingObvious change in wart or moleNagging cough or hoarseness
12Detecting and Treating Cancer: Self examinationBiopsy: the removal of a small piece of tissue for examinationTreatment:Surgery: removes some or all of cancerous tissue mass.Radiation therapy: aims rays from radioactive substances at cancerous cells. Radiation kills or shrinks the mass.Chemotherapy: uses chemicals to destroy cancer cellsImmunotherapy: activates a person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.Hormone therapy: involves using medicines that interfere with the production of hormones. Treatment kills cancer cells or slows the growth.
14Define the following terms Using your text starting on page 514: Cardiovascular DiseaseAngina PectorisAtherosclerosisArrhythmiasHeart AttackHypertensionStroke
15WARNING SIGNS OF A HEART ATTACK & STROKE: Heart stops because heart is overworked:Left arm goes numbSweatingSkin is pale or clammyChest painUnconsciousShortness of breathBreathing difficultyBlood supply to the brain is cut off:ConfusionHeadacheDizzinessSweatingPale and/or rednessBalance is thrown off
16Vocabulary Hypertension (high blood pressure) can be lowered with medication, weight management, physical activity, and proper nutritionmost common among people over the age of 35normal range: 120/80often called the “silent killer”- having no symptoms in early stages
17Vocabulary Atherosclerosis Cholesterol: A build up of fatty materials in your arteriesnarrows the arteries, making the heart work harderCholesterol:HDL: high density lipoprotein (good)LDL: low density lipoprotein (bad) causes atherosclerosis
18Vocabulary Cardiovascular Disease: A disease that affects the heart, blood, or blood vessels.Angina- chest pains caused by lack of oxygenArrhythmias- irregular heartbeatHeart attack- caused by blockages of arteries, damage to the heart muscleStroke- arterial blockage that disrupts the flow of blood in the brainCongestive Heart Failure- heart no longer pumps efficiently
19RISK FACTORS FOR CVD’S Heredity Gender Age CONTROLLABLEUNCONTROLLABLETobacco UseHigh Blood Pressure- have it checked periodicallyHigh Cholesterol- eat less high-fat foodsPhysical InactivityExcess WeightStressDrug and Alcohol UseHeredityGenderAgeThe health behaviors that you practice now are affecting your cardiovascular system!