Presentation on theme: "INFECTIOUS DISEASES CHAPTER 21 (11) Infectious Disease Communicable Can spread easily Caused by organisms that multiple within us Micro-organism."— Presentation transcript:
INFECTIOUS DISEASES CHAPTER 21 (11)
Infectious Disease Communicable Can spread easily Caused by organisms that multiple within us Micro-organism
CAUSES OF INFECTIONS PATHOGENS 1.BACTERIA Simple, single cells organism, that can live almost anywhere. TOXINS – poisons
2. VIRUSES Bundle of genes wrapped in protein cover Virus factory
3. FUNGI Simple organisms related to mold Like warm, dark, and moist areas
4. PROTOZOANS Moves through fluids in search of food 5. OTHER PATHOGENS Diseases caused by animals, insects and parasitic worms
PATHOGENS ARE SPREAD BY: 1. CONTACT with INFECTED PERSONS: direct contact, indirect contact
2. CONTACT with CONTAMINATED OBJECTS.
3. CONTACT with INFECTED ANIMALS/ INSECTS. 4. CONTACT with ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES.
BODYS DEFENSES: 1. PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES A. SKIN – largest organ on the body Pores are exits Secretes sweat – which is poisonous to germs Secretes oil – called Sebum
Bodys Defenses (cont.) PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES B. MUCOUS MEMBRANES – protective lining Secretes mucus; traps pathogen Chemicals within it kills pathogen Cilia – tiny hair like structures * removes pathogens
Bodys Defenses (cont.) PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES C. Saliva and Tears – washes away pathogens D. Digestive System – removes/excretes pathogens
Bodys Defenses (cont.) 2. INFLAMMATION: BODYS RESPONSE TO ALL KINDS OF INJURY Damaged cells release chemicals that cause blood vessels to enlarge Allows more blood flow – carries nutrients and white blood cells to area Phagocytes – white blood cells
Bodys Defenses Infected area becomes red, swollen and sore Pus – white liquid that is an accumulation of fluids, white blood cells and dead cells.
Bodys Defenses (cont.) 3. IMMUNE SYSTEM – made up of blood, bone marrow and lymphatic tissue LYMPHATIC SYSTEM – is a network of vessels that form the immune system. Has three structures
Three lymphatic structures LYMPH – the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system LYMPH NODES – small stations that houses different white blood cells LYMPHOCYTES – specialized white blood cells Some patrol the body Some are dormant in the lymph nodes
3 TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES 1. B LYMPHOCYTES – B CELLS 2. T LYMPHOCYTES – T CELLS A. Helper T B. Killer T C. Suppressor T 3. MEMORY CELLS
1. B LYMPHOCYTES B CELLS – produces antibodies ANTIBODIES – are Y-shaped proteins that attach themselves to pathogens Form memory cells
2. T LYMPHOCYTES (T CELLS) A. HELPER T CELLS Produces chemical that regulates the activity of the other white blood cells Interferon – chemical that stimulates phagocytes B. KILLER T CELLS Kills pathogens directly by destroying the infected body cells
T Cells (cont.) C. SUPPRESSOR T CELLS SLOWS DOWN THE RESPONSE OF THE B CELLS AND THE T CELLS
3. MEMORY CELLS FORM AFTER HAVING AN INFECTION FORM THROUGH VACCINATIONS ARE STORED IN THE LYMPH NODES
Immunity The bodys ability to fight infection. Active – having infection - Vaccination – injection of of disabled or dead pathogen. Passive – immunity through an outside source
STAGES OF INFECTIONS 1. INCUBATION STAGE – time between, when the pathogen enters the body and makes you sick. Every pathogen has a different incubation period 2. PRODROMAL STAGE – when the first symptoms occur Sore throat, sneezing, etc.
Stages of infections (cont.) 3. ACUTE STAGE – symptoms are most severe. Fever 4. RECOVERY STAGE – start to feel better. Convalescence – period between end of infection Relapse – illness returns
MEDICATIONS ANTIBIOTICS – drugs that kill bacteria Penicillin Erythromycin Tetracycline Bixan Take it exactly as directed. Always take the exact amount that the label says to take. If the label says to take the medicine at a certain time, follow these directions. Take it for as long as prescribed.
Medications 75% of antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections 50% of antibiotic prescriptions are inappropriate Most respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses Antibiotics do not work against viruses
What Are Antivirals? Antivirals are medications that reduce the ability of flu viruses to multiply. The CDC considers antiviral drugs as a "second line of defense against the flu. "When taken at the onset of flu, these medications help decrease the severity and duration of flu symptoms.
USING MEDICATION CORRECTLY Tell doctor of any medicine you are taking Tell doctor of any drugs taken within 24hr. Ask how medicine should affect you Store medications correctly Read information of label, or print out Take medication prescribed to you only
Cont. Tell doctor of any side effects NEVER drink alcohol with medication, this includes over the counter meds. Throw away old medications.
MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS PHARMACOLOGISTS NEEDS PH.D WORKS IN RESEARCH LAB. TO DEVELOP NEW DRUGS TO TREAT OR PREVENT DISEASE. PHARMACIST NEED 5 YR. COLLEGE PROGRAM AND STATE LICENSE DISPENSES MEDICINES THAT HAVE BEEN PRESCRIBED BY DOC.
ORGANIZATIONS: CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL - CDC WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION - WHO