Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 10 Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 10 Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 10 Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises All rights reserved Anatomical Graphics from: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. McGraw-Hill, 1998 Progressive resistance exercise promotes muscle fitness that permits efficient and effective movement, contributes to ease and economy of muscular effort, promotes successful performance, and lowers susceptibility to some types of injuries, musculoskeletal problems, and some illnesses.

2 2Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Terminology Weight training Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) Weight lifting PowerliftingBodybuilding

3 3Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscular Strength Able to lift a heavy weight Able to exert a great force Lab 10a Info

4 4Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscular Endurance Able to perform repeated muscular contractions Lab 10b Info

5 5Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Note: These drugs are highly dangerous and have permanent and life threatening consequences (see future slide) Factors Influencing Strength Type of muscle tissue GenderAge Anatomy (leverage) Drugs Anabolic steroids Anabolic steroids Human growth hormone Human growth hormone

6 6Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Facts about Resistance Training Everyone can gain strength and endurance NOT everyone will improve to the same extent (genetic predisposition) Adaptations depend largely on the muscle fibers type distribution. Fast twitch muscle fibers adapt more readily. Adaptations depend largely on the muscle fibers type distribution. Fast twitch muscle fibers adapt more readily. See more info on fiber types

7 7Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Health Benefits of Muscular Fitness Strength and muscular endurance promote muscular fitness and provide important health benefits Avoiding back problems Avoiding back problems Good posture Good posture Reducing risks of injury Reducing risks of injury Reducing risks of osteoporosis Reducing risks of osteoporosis

8 8Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Other Benefits of Muscular Fitness Weight control Increased wellness Look good Feel good Core strength Abdominal, paraspinal (back), gluteal muscles Abdominal, paraspinal (back), gluteal muscles Improved performance

9 9Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Types of PRE Isotonic (dynamic strength/endurance) Concentric Concentric Eccentric Eccentric Plyometrics Plyometrics Isometric (static strength/endurance) Isokinetic Functional balance training Core strength and balance Core strength and balance Click for info on concentric and eccentric contractions

10 10Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Choice of Equipment Choice of Equipment Free Weights Weight Machines There are advantages to both types of equipment There are advantages to both types of equipment. Web10-7 – variable resistance machines

11 11Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e The FIT Formula Applied to Resistance Training How often? What resistance? How many sets?

12 12Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Repetitions Resistance (% of 1 RM) High Load Low Reps Mod Load Mod Reps Low Load High Reps Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Repetition Continuum

13 13Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Stimulus for Strength Target Zone F: 2-3 days/wk I : 60-80% 1RM) T: 1-3 sets 3- 8 reps 3- 8 reps Repetitions Resistance (% of 1 RM) High Load Low Reps Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Mod Load Mod Reps Low Load High Reps

14 14Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Stimulus for Endurance Target Zone F: every other day I : 40-60% 1RM T: 2-5 sets 9-25 reps Repetitions Resistance (% of 1 RM) Low Load High Reps Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance High Load Low Reps Mod Load Mod Reps

15 15Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e F: 3 days/week I: 40-60% 1RM 40-50% 1RM >50 years old 40-50% 1RM >50 years old T: 1-3 sets 8-12 reps; 1-3 sets reps for adults >50 yrs old Stimulus for Overall Muscle Fitness (Target Zone) Repetitions Resistance (% of 1 RM) High Load Low Reps Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance High Load Low Reps Low Load High Reps

16 16Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Training Principles of PRE OverloadProgressionSpecificity Diminishing Returns Rest / Recovery Click icon for info on the physiology of muscle function

17 17Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Is There Strength in a Bottle? Taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous way to build muscle fitness and is illegal. Injuries happen more easily and last longer in people who use steroids. Androstenedione and THG are not safe alternatives to steroids. Human growth hormone (HGH) may be even more dangerous than anabolic steroids. Creatine use is becoming increasingly popular among people training for strength development. The safety and efficacy of many strength-related dietary supplements are not established.

18 18Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Guidelines for Safe & Effective Resistance Training Start slowly Use good technique Lift in a controlled manner Lift in a controlled manner Exhale during effort Exhale during effort Bring weight down slowly Bring weight down slowly Allow time for recovery Include all body parts and balance strength of antagonistic muscle groups Expect plateaus Customize program to fit your needs

19 19Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Fallacies about Resistance Training See Table 4, p. 189 No pain - no gain Makes you “muscle bound” Fat can be converted into muscle Extra muscle turns to fat if not used Has masculinizing effect on women

20 20Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts in Resistance Training "The pump” Strength gain Muscle fatigue Muscle soreness Muscle sorenessTone? Click for information on a potential cause of muscle soreness

21 21Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Click for more info on each topic Developing a Resistance Training Program Set goals Set goals Type of program Type of program Choice of equipment Muscle groups Muscle groups Order of exercises Order of exercises Format for sets Format for sets My Program Lab 10c/10d Info

22 22Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Web Resources “On the Web”“On the Web” pages for Concept “On the Web” Online Learning Center Online Learning Center

23 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 23 Supplemental Graphics Lab Information Additional Details and Graphics on Muscle Physiology

24 24Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10a Information Evaluating Muscular Strength (1 RM) Find bench press and leg press stations Choose a weight that you can lift less than 10 times before fatiguing. Record the exact number Use chart to estimate 1 RM based on weight and reps to fatigue Compute relative strength and complete rating chart Return to presentation

25 25Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10b Information Evaluating Muscular Endurance Perform push-up, pull-up and flexed- arm hang exercises - record repetitions or time (flexed-arm hang). Make ratings and describe results based on how you scored and how you thought you would score Return to presentation

26 26Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Lab 10c-d Information Planning and Logging Your Program Choose exercises that work the major muscle groups of the body from any of the “Basic 8 Exercises”. Lab 10c: machine / free weight Lab 10c: machine / free weight Lab 10d: calisthenics / isometrics Lab 10d: calisthenics / isometrics Plan days to do exercises for 1 week Monitor progress using log sheet and describe experiences Return to presentation

27 27Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle Fiber Types Return to presentation Fast Twitch Fibers Stain light in color Stain light in color More anaerobic More anaerobic Suited to strength and speed activity Suited to strength and speed activity Slow Twitch Fibers Stain dark Stain dark More aerobic More aerobic Suited to endurance activity Suited to endurance activity Web10-2

28 28Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Sample Calculation Question: Who’s stronger: A: 250 pound person who can lift 200 pounds A: 250 pound person who can lift 200 pounds B: 150 pound person who can lift 175 pounds B: 150 pound person who can lift 175 pounds Answer: B A: relative strength = 200/250 =.80 A: relative strength = 200/250 =.80 B: relative strength = 175/150 = 1.17 B: relative strength = 175/150 = 1.17

29 29Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e The amount of weight lifted relative to the person's body weight Measured as a ratio: Relative Strength = weight lifted (lb.) body weight (lb.) Relative Strength

30 30Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Structural Damage in Muscle Fibers Return to presentation The vertical lines are the “z - lines” that define the boundaries of the muscle sarcomere Microscopic damage can lead to disruption of the z-lines and contribute to soreness

31 31Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Physiology of Muscular Contractions Origin / Insertion A muscle produces movement due to the fact that it crosses a joint. A muscle produces movement due to the fact that it crosses a joint. See next slide to see how a muscle can physiologically shorten.

32 32Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Sliding Filament Theory Actin/Myosin Protein filaments within a muscle fiber that slide across each other to physiologically shorten the fiber. Protein filaments within a muscle fiber that slide across each other to physiologically shorten the fiber. Web10-1

33 Muscles Work in Pairs While one muscle contracts and shortens the opposing muscle group relaxes and lengthens

34 34Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle Fibers are Grouped into Motor Units A motor unit refers to a motor nerve and the number of muscle fibers that it innervates

35 35Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Regulation of Muscle Force (Tetany) When recruited at a high frequency, motor units produce a constant level of force as the individual forces sum together.

36 36Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e The “All or None” Law of Muscular Contractions When a motor unit is stimulated, it “fires” at 100% of its optimal potential, or it does not fire at all. Light loads use few fibers (but at 100%) Heavy loads use many fibers (also at 100%) Return to presentation

37 37Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Setting Goals SpecificChallengingAttainable Goals provide motivation and a sense of purpose Return to presentation

38 38Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Type of Program Muscular strength Muscular endurance General muscular fitness The guidelines vary depending on the type of program that is desired. Return to presentation

39 39Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Muscle Groups Sport specific training Overall muscle balance Most resistance training programs should include exercises for all major muscle groups. Return to presentation

40 40Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Order of Exercise Large muscle groups first Small muscle groups first (pre-exhaust) There are many different ways to order exercises within a workout. Return to presentation See Web10-09 for information on different training systems

41 41Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Format for Sets Single sets Multiple sets heavy to light (Oxford system) heavy to light (Oxford system) light to heavy (DeLorme system) light to heavy (DeLorme system) Circuit Training There are many different ways to format sets within a workout. Return to presentation

42 42Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Types of Contractions Concentric vs. Eccentric Concentric (shortening) LIFTING Concentric LIFTING Eccentric (lengthening) LOWERING Eccentric LOWERING Both phases can build muscle! Return to presentation


Download ppt "1Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 10 Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google