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Lifetime Fitness Chapter 5 Muscular Strength Assessment and Prescription.

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1 Lifetime Fitness Chapter 5 Muscular Strength Assessment and Prescription

2 General Principles Strength is crucial for optimal performance in activities of daily living Strength training over time = decreased HR and BP Most important component in older population (improves balance, lifting/reaching easier, decreases risk of injuries and falls, stresses bones decreasing osteoporosis)

3 Strength and Metabolism Strength training = muscle hypertrophy Muscle tissue uses energy even at rest Increased muscle mass = increased resting metabolism 1 lb. Muscle gain = resting metabolism increases 35 calories per day Higher metabolic rate = more you can eat without gaining fat

4 Gender Differences Men have more muscle fibers – more hypertrophy potential Muscle variations determined by differences in M/F hormonal secretions Anabolic steroids – detrimental side effects

5 Changes in Body Composition Combined aerobic and strength program = Decreased adipose tissue around muscle fibers Lose girth inches but not body weight Women discouraged when do not lose weight with weight training – must also aerobic train for decreased weight

6 Assessment of Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular Strength = ability to exert max force against resistance Muscular Endurance = ability of muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time Tests measure: Strength, Endurance, Combination of both Strength = 1 RM – one repetition maximum (single lift max) Endurance = Total # reps against resistance or time Safety, Safety, Safety when testing

7 Muscular Strength Tests Hand Grip Test – 5.2 procedure 1 RM Tests – specific large muscle groups –Bench, leg press, squat, pull down, etc.

8 Muscular Endurance Tests Upper body, Lower body, Mid-body Muscle Groups (5.3) –Bench jump –Modified dip –Modified push up –Bent leg curl up –Abdominal crunch

9 Muscular Strength and Endurance Tests Submaximal resistance lifts for max reps during six different strength-training exercises (Fig 5.4) –Lat Pull-Down –Leg Extension –Bench Press –Bent-Leg Curl-Up or Abdominal Crunch –Leg Curl –Arm Curl

10 Strength Training Prescription Factors affecting strength gain: 1.Neural Stimulation -motor neurons, motor unit 2.Types of Muscle Fiber – genetically determined, can increase efficiency of of each type, can recruit muscle fibers through specificity of training Slow Twitch = aerobic work Fast Twitch = anaerobic work and force 3.Overload Principle – increase demands/resistance over time 4.Specificity of Training – program designed specific to activity training for

11 Principles of Strength Training 1.Mode of Training Isometric (Static) Training – muscle contraction with little/no movement Dynamic Training – muscle contraction with movement (Isotonic free weights,bands; Isokinetic machines ) Concentric Contraction (positives) = shortening of muscle during contraction. (push-up Eccentric Contraction (negatives)= lengthening of muscle during contraction

12 Free Weights vs. Machine Weights Free Weights –Require balance –Low cost –Variety –Portability –One size fits all Machine Weights –Safety –Selection –Variable resistance –Isolation of muscles –Time –Flexibility –Rehabilitation –Skill acquisition

13 Principles of Strength Training 2.Resistance 80% of max (1 RM) ideal for strength development Ex. Bench 150 lbs = 150 x.80 = 120 lbs. Work Load 3 to 12 reps = range of work load –> 12 reps = add weight (progressive resistance training) Increase strength = 1-6 RM Increase hypertrophy = 10 RM Increase endurance = >12 RM 10 RM effective for overall performance gains

14 Principles of Strength Training 3.Sets Total # repetitions for a given exercise 3 sets of 8-12 reps recommended Build gradually General rule = 3 minute rest period between sets 1.3 min = maximize strength gains 2.2 min = health fitness purposes 3.1 min = bodybuilders keeping muscle pumping effect Circuit Training – alternate two or three exercises that require different muscle groups (bench, ab curl, leg extension…then return to muscle group again)

15 Principles of Strength Training 4.Frequency of Training Strength Program ResistanceSetsRest between sets Frequency per week Health Fitness 8-12 Reps max 32 min2-3 Maximal Strength 1-6 Reps max 3-63 min2-3 Muscular Endurance 10-30 Reps 3-62 min3-6 Body Building 8-20 Reps near max 3-80-1 min4-12

16 Principles of Strength Training General Strength Training Guidelines for Program Design: Mode 8–10 dynamic strength-training exercises involving the body’s major muscle groups Resistance Enough resistance to perform 8-12 reps to near- fatigue (10-15 reps for older and more frail individuals) Sets A minimum of 1 set Frequency At least two times per week

17 Plyometrics Explosive jump training, incorporating speed and strength training to enhance explosiveness Strength Speed Explosiveness Short bouts of jumps or bounds for upper or lower body Low reps, low frequency – High risk of injury if done incorrectly or too often

18 Strength Exercise Guidelines  Work all major muscle groups: chest, shoulders, back, legs, arms, hip, and trunk  Always lift with a partner  Proper warm-up  Exercise larger muscle groups first  Work opposing groups for balance  Do all lifts in a controlled manner  Lift through the entire ROM  Breathe evenly  Inhale during eccentric (bringing wt. down)  Exhale during concentric (lifting/pushing)  Do not hold breath; dizzy, pass out, heart attack  Allow adequate recovery time between lifts  Discontinue or evaluate program if increased pain  Stretch post workout to minimize muscle soreness

19 Design Your Own Strength-Training Program Assignment: Design and write a personal strength-training program including the following: 1. Identify goal to increase Strength Gain, Muscular Endurance, or both Strength and Endurance Gains 2.List at least 8-10 specific exercises. Briefly explain each. 3.Identify Sets, Repetitions, Frequency, and Approximate Resistance (Weight/Band) 4.List alternate ways to accomplish some of these same exercises if traditional strength training equipment is not available

20 Chapter 5 Assignments Due 1.Lab figure 5.5 Strength Test Report 2.Personal Strength Training Program –Use Lab figure 5.8 or write your design your own 3.Written note Chapter 5 outline 4.Complete Chapter 5 on-line computer quiz wadsworth/ ine_number=16&product_isbn_issn=0534582575 and e-mail or print results to: wadsworth/ ine_number=16&product_isbn_issn=0534582575

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