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Career Development Relating to Employment Opportunities

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1 Career Development Relating to Employment Opportunities
Instructional Materials Service IMS #8000A2

2 Objectives Discuss career opportunities in agricultural-related occupations and the need for continued education for advancement. Identify effective methods to secure and terminate employment. Demonstrate effective written and oral skills.

3 Objectives Follow through on assigned tasks.
Demonstrate dependability and punctuality. Demonstrate productive work habit and attitude. Develop pride in the quality of work performed.

4 Objectives Recognize the dignity of work.
Develop skills in planning and organizing work. Apply required methods and sequences when performing tasks. Apply principles of time management and work simplification when performing assigned tasks.

5 Introduction The agricultural industry boasts an abundance of exciting employment opportunities. Regardless of interest, there is a perfect career, occupation or job out there for everyone.

6 Differentiating Between A Career, Occupation, & Job
Career - involves the general direction of a person’s life as related to work. Occupation - involves an area of work with specific duties. Job - specific work that has definite duties and is done in a particular place.

7 Introduction People spend half of their life working.
Therefore it is extremely important that a person choose a career that he/she will love. By taking a personal inventory of one’s abilities and interests, a person can get an idea of a career field or pathway that may be of interest to him/her.

8 Introduction Careful research into the desired career and available positions, as well as careful consideration of whether or not the career offers what an individual desires, helps ensure that the individual doesn’t choose a position that isn’t right for him/her.

9 Introduction Being hired depends on an individual’s ability to express his/her strengths and desirable qualities. To successfully maintain employment, one must possess the appropriate skills for the job, as well as desirable traits and ethics.

10 Things to Consider When Selecting a Career Field
Personal Interests Aptitudes Abilities Personality and Attitudes Values and Standards Goals Resources

11 Interests Include hobbies, activities, events, and ideas that a person enjoys.

12 Interests Determined by answering the following questions:
What do I do in my spare time? What would I like to do that I haven’t experienced yet? What do I like to talk about with others? What is my favorite thing to do?

13 Aptitudes Natural physical and mental talents for learning the skills required for professional choices. May be determined based on self-knowledge or tests offered by school. General Aptitude Test Battery, which measures nine different aptitudes and may indicate strengths and weaknesses, may be available through school guidance counselor.

14 Abilities Capacity to perform a task well.
May be learned and developed, or may be a natural talent. Generally, an ability for a skill is more easily acquired when a person has an aptitude for the skill.

15 Values Ideals and principles that a person holds most important in life. May be influenced by parents, teachers, and friends. Naturally developed by keeping and disregarding the ideas of outside influences and combining kept values with personal experiences.

16 Standards Set the basis for an individual’s expectations when his/her values are questioned. Draw the line that a person doesn’t feel comfortable crossing. Set for everything including living habits, friendliness, professionalism, self worth, personal ethics, and goals.

17 Goals Aspirations a person strives to achieve.
May include short-term or long-term goals. Short-term goal may be to finish a class assignment before the due date. Long-term goal may be to graduate in the top ten percent of the class. Set based on values and standards.

18 Values, Standards, and Goals
Tend to change over time. Should be continually re-evaluated.

19 Personality The way a person behaves and acts.
Identifies a person as an individual. Involves a person’s emotional and physical well being and influences others’ views of him/her. Determines the character of a person.

20 Personality A key characteristic that employers use to evaluate job candidates. Employers look for employees with a happy, cheerful personality that will benefit the company and fit into its environment.

21 Attitude A characteristic of personality.
The way a person feels and acts in regards to him/her self and others. Affects the way a person responds to certain stimulus.

22 Characteristics Affected by a Person’s Attitude
Dependability Friendliness Loyalty Honesty Initiative Open-Mindedness Self-Confidence Self-Control Sense of Humor

23 Attitude Employers want a person who works well with others and has a positive attitude. Negative or bad attitude can carry from one person to another and cause a drop in effectiveness, efficiency, and production.

24 Resources Resources include skills, abilities, talents, knowledge, and time. Tangible resources include money, tools, personal belongings, and other resources. Personal contacts are also resources. All types of resources can help one choose a career.

25 Researching Careers Familiarity with career pathways may aid in researching careers. Career pathways are groups of occupations with similar broad skill requirements and work responsibilities.

26 Common Career Pathways in Agriculture

27 Examples of Occupations in Career Pathways
Animal Systems Plant Systems Power and Technical Systems Natural Resources Environ-mental Services Food and Nutrition Agri-business Livestock Producer Livestock Inspector Pet Shop Owner Livestock Buyer Dairy Farmer Farm Manager Urban Forester Cotton Grader Turf Scientist Floral Designer Irrigation Specialist Custom Harvester Agricultural Engineer Global Position Specialist Welder Fishery Technician Wildlife Scientist Range Manager Mining Equipment Operator Fisherman Air Quality Technician Hazardous Materials Technician Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Sanitarian Toxicologist Poultry Inspector Food Scientist Food Plant Engineer Meat Grader Nutritionist Commodity Broker Ag Loan Officer Feed Sales Rep. Agricultural Economist Ag Products Buyer

28 Researching Careers Sources of information for researching careers include: Libraries and the Internet Human Resources Career Fairs Co-op Experiences, Internships, Apprenticeships, and/or Shadowing Resource chosen should provide information on a variety of topics.

29 Libraries and the Internet
Libraries may offer resources such as: Newspapers Magazines Books Journals On-line information

30 Libraries and the Internet
Use a library’s card catalog, or an Internet search engine, to search by keyword for information on the career of interest.

31 Libraries and the Internet
For example, if interested in animals, complete a search using the key words: animal; animal science; animal research; animal rights/welfare; pets; or animal care.

32 Human Resources Includes counselors, mentors, and friends who may serve as a source of career information.

33 Counselors May be able to direct individuals to desired information.
May maintain up-to-date folders on different occupations and educational requirements. May help individuals better understand their personal interests, aptitudes, and abilities.

34 Mentors and Friends May have personal experience and knowledge to share. May help a person recognize personal characteristics and traits. May be able to direct an individual to associates involved in career fields of interest. May be willing or able to help a person find employment opportunities.

35 Career Fairs May include career fairs, career conferences, or career consultations. Opportunity for direct contact with people employed with the company of interest or in desired career fields. People are available to answer questions regarding their employers or job opportunities.

36 Career Fairs Questions for company representatives should be related to the following: Training Getting the first job Company environment Job likes and dislikes Questions should provide further insight into the company or career field.

37 Co-op Employment Involves a cooperative agreement between the employee and employer to employ a person while he/she is still in high school or college. High school co-op employment is part-time and generally involves hours of work per week. College co-op employment can be either part-time or full-time.

38 Co-op Employment Direct supervision and help is provided to the employee. Employee usually earns a salary. Individual learns the duties and responsibilities of the position and workplace.

39 Internship Similar to a co-op experience, but individual usually has some training. Intern may be assigned to a specific person or department to work with, or may be assigned general duties. Interns receive hands-on experience before formal education is completed.

40 Internship Position may be paid or unpaid.
Offers experience and the possibility of receiving valuable recommendations for future jobs.

41 Apprenticeship System of employee training that combines on-the-job training with technical instruction. Programs are most common in fields requiring skilled or “craft-workers” such as electricians and construction workers.

42 Apprenticeship Involves agreement between apprentice and employer regarding the following: Length of Training Hours of Instruction Wages Outline of Skills to be Learned

43 Shadowing Short-term commitment between the individual and company.
Provides an individual with an opportunity to follow, or shadow, a professional engaged in a specific career role. Should provide enough time to provide an in-depth knowledge of the position. Normally non-salaried.

44 Evaluating Careers All job opportunities and job offers should be evaluated. Opportunities should be evaluated based on questions related to the following: Career Goals Job Expectations Effect on Personal Lifestyle

45 Career Goals Is there potential for future work involvement?
Is this related to my specific area of interest? Would this career motivate me to seek advancement?

46 Career Goals Will there be opportunities to gain the experience needed for advancement? Does the opportunity exist within the organization for advancement?

47 Job Expectations What is the desired treatment by employers and peers?
What level of job training is given before assuming responsibilities? What degree of responsibility does the employee desire? Does the company encourage creativity?

48 Job Expectations How does the company accept new ideas?
What are the company policies on gender, religion, and family issues? Does the company atmosphere reflect social interaction or is social interaction discouraged?

49 Personal Lifestyle Does the job require relocation, and is relocating acceptable? Does the time this job requires still allow time to pursue personal interests? Will there be time to get away from work and relieve job stress? Will there be time to marry and start a family or devote to a family?

50 Personal Lifestyle How much time is there for personal social interaction? Can this job support the desired lifestyle or family? Will this job conflict with the spouse’s career, or agree with it?

51 Evaluating Careers Basic information needed to evaluate a position and its appropriateness for an individual includes: Educational Requirements Working Hours Expected Salary

52 Educational Requirements
Educational requirements correspond to duties associated with the position. As job requirements increase, so do educational requirements.

53 Educational Requirements
Commonly required levels of education: High School Diploma or GED Trade School Certification or Associate of Arts Degree Bachelor of Science Degree Masters Degree or Doctorate Degree

54 High School Diploma or GED
Often the minimum requirement for jobs paying minimum wage.

55 Trade School Certification or Associate of Arts Degree
Trade schools or junior colleges often provide a working knowledge of a specific area. These educational programs may include training or apprenticeships in technical fields such as computer programming or engine repair.

56 Bachelor of Science Degree
Obtained by successfully completing a college education. Entry level educational requirement for most professional workers. Experience in the armed forces may also meet this educational requirement.

57 Evaluating Careers Based on Educational Requirements
If advanced education or training is required for the desired position, one must consider the following: Time commitment to attend college or trade school. Financial investment required. Level of educational achievement required. Possibility of having to relocate in order to receive the required education.

58 Hours of Employment Considerations regarding hours of employment include: Part-time vs. Full-time Hourly vs. Salaried Straight Time vs. Shift Work Overtime

59 Hours of Employment Part-time vs. Full-time Hourly vs. Salaried
Full-time usually requires 40 hours per week. Hourly vs. Salaried Hourly employees are eligible for overtime, but don’t get paid holidays or sick time. Salaried employees aren’t eligible for overtime, but generally get paid holidays and sick time.

60 Hours of Employment Straight Time vs. Shift Work
Straight time generally means working 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Shift work can include late night or early morning hours.

61 Hours of Employment Overtime
Any time at work over the normal 40 hours. Generally only hourly employees are paid overtime. Pay is generally time-and-a-half of regular pay. If you are paid $10/hr., you would be paid $15/hr. for any overtime. Working on a holiday generally pays double time. If you are paid $10/hr., you would be paid $20/hr. for working on a holiday.

62 Salary Salary includes more than just the amount of money being offered for the job. Salary also includes benefits. Some jobs may offer a higher salary, but few benefits, or vice versa.

63 Common Benefits Health Insurance Life Insurance Dental Insurance
Optical Insurance Sick Leave Vacation Paid Vacation Bonuses Retirement Plan

64 Securing Employment Find job openings.
Narrow and select employment opportunities. Submit the following: Letter of Application Completed Application for Employment Resume, Vita, and/or Portfolio

65 Securing Employment Be interviewed by prospective employer.
Send a follow-up letter. Consider employment offer.

66 Sources for Job Opening Notices or Postings
Employer Website Many large businesses and government offices post openings on their website. Placement Office Some schools, colleges, and other educational institutions have such offices that assist their students in finding jobs.

67 Sources for Job Opening Notices or Postings
Employment Agency May be operated by government agencies or private businesses. Often list openings and help match people with jobs. Media Advertisements Newspapers, radio, and television may list openings. Newspapers often list many job openings and advertisements.

68 Sources for Job Opening Notices or Postings
Friends and Family May be able to provide information about job openings with their company or other employers, or put you in contact with another person who may be of assistance. Direct Calling Business may be contacted directly to determine if they have any openings.

69 Narrowing and Selecting Opportunities
Narrow employment opportunities by weighing each job’s advantages and disadvantages and selecting possibilities that meet career goals and personal needs. Options that aren’t chosen may still be considered possibilities and alternatives.

70 Letters of Application
Purpose is to inform an employer of an interest in a job. Should be addressed to the person responsible for hiring or recommending prospective employees. If necessary, call the company to get the name and spelling of the person responsible for filling the position.

71 Letters of Application
Should include three paragraphs addressing the following: Position or type of work applying for. Include a brief explanation of how you became aware of the job. Description of qualifications for the job. Also make reference to resume, vita, or portfolio if enclosed. Request for an interview. Also thank the person for his/her time and provide personal contact information that can be used to schedule an interview.

72 Resumes and Vitae Can be a key factor in being offered an interview for a job. Should reflect the person and “sell” the candidate. Include personal information and qualifications. Should be neat, well organized, and honest.

73 Difference Between Resumes and Vitae
Usually for careers in academics, education, or research. In-depth. May have additional headings and pages. Resumes More commonly used than vitae. Brief. Generally only 1-2 pages in length.

74 General Tips for Resumes and Vitae Preparation
Use a printer that produces a quality image. Select a high quality paper that is white or light in color. Font should be simple and 10- or 12-point in size.

75 Common Headings for Resumes and Vitae
Contact Information Career Objective Education Work Experience Activities Honors and Awards References

76 Contact Information First information listed under person’s name. Should include: Address May include physical and mailing address. If address is temporary, also include a permanent address. Telephone Number Include both temporary and permanent phone numbers if necessary. Address

77 Career Objective Optional heading for both resumes and vitae.
Often included when individual is engaged in broad or ongoing career search. Should address specific type of employment preferred.

78 Education Should include information about all educational institutions attended. Should include the following for each institution: Dates attended or attending. Name of institution. Location of institution. Education or degree received or expected.

79 Education Institutions should be listed beginning with the current or most recent. Also include specific academic honors and grade point average (GPA). May also include workshops, seminars, or other special training received.

80 Work Experience Typically follows education.
Should include both salaried and non-salaried positions. Non-salaried positions may include apprenticeships, co-op employment, shadowing, or internships, and at-home work such as farm or ranch work or babysitting.

81 Information Included Under Work Experience
Time (dates) held at each position. Name of the organization. Location of the organization. Duties of the position.

82 Activities May include the following :
Extracurricular Activities Community Activities Also include leadership positions, volunteer work, and community service. Some may choose to include hobbies within the section or in place of it.

83 Honors and Awards Section may be helpful in selling one’s self to the employer. It is particularly important to include awards relating to job performance or the career field.

84 References Include people who are familiar with the personal character and work experience of the applicant. Possible references include: Former or Present Employers Supervisors Teachers Religious Leaders Neighbors

85 References Always ask a person’s permission before listing them as a reference. Include 3-5 references, along with their job title, mailing address, phone number, and address. References may be asked to submit a letter of recommendation or be contacted by an employer for comments regarding the applicant’s character and work experience.

86 Portfolios Used to compliment a resume or may stand alone.
Contains examples of a person’s work.

87 Example of Portfolio Contents
Photographer Photos taken, submitted, and awards received. Writer Articles, excerpts of papers written, publications, and any awards received. Student Certificates of completion, pictures of participation in work experiences, or high school transcript.

88 Guidelines for Compiling a Portfolio
Include only the best and most relevant work. Be honest and not afraid to show off individual accomplishments. Be selective and concise with information. Use terms that explain how your experiences will transfer to the workplace.

89 Guidelines for Compiling a Portfolio
Always write professionally and use correct writing techniques. Be creative, but don’t distract from the presentation. Remember that portfolios act as a visual and written representation of an individual’s work.

90 Tips for Resumes, Vitae, and Portfolios
Always keep documents current by entering information as it occurs. Use categories to make it easier to enter relevant information.

91 Interviews Preparation is essential for a successful interview.
Prior to the interview, research the business and desired position.

92 Questions To Answer Through Research
What is the mission of the business or company? What is the reputation of the company with other businesses and customers? What is the primary product or service provided by the company?

93 Questions To Answer Through Research
What other products or services are provided by the company? How many people are employed by the business? Is the company growing and expanding? What is the process for advancement within the organization?

94 Interviews Questions that can’t be answered through research should be asked during the interview. Prior to the interview, prepare for questions the interviewer may ask.

95 Possible Interview Questions
Please start by telling us about yourself. What do you know about our business? What do you expect to get out of a job with us? What work experience do you have?

96 Possible Interview Questions
What experience do you have relating to this position? What are your strengths and weaknesses? Why should we hire you? Would you be willing to relocate?

97 Possible Interview Questions
What salary would you expect to receive? If you were offered the job, when could you start?

98 Making a Good First Impression at Interviews
Be on time. Arrive 5-10 minutes early and allow extra time for travel problems or finding the correct location.

99 Making a Good First Impression at Interviews
Dress appropriately. The general rule is to dress one step above the position for which you are applying.

100 Making a Good First Impression at Interviews
Act with professionalism. Firmly shake the hand of the interviewer. Wait to be seated until offered a seat or ask if you may take a seat. Sit up straight.

101 Making a Good First Impression at Interviews
Act with professionalism. Make eye contact. Be enthusiastic about the position. Avoid distracting gestures such as chewing gum, tapping a foot or fingers, fidgeting, etc.

102 Interview Tips When answering questions, be confident but not boastful. Don’t limit answers to a “yes” or “no”, but don’t give long drawn out answers. Thank the interviewer(s) for their time. Remember that the interviewer is responsible for ending the interview.

103 Follow-Up Letter Written to the interviewer following the interview.
Should be professional and brief. Should thank the interviewer for the interview and re-emphasize a desire for the job. Should ask for a reply in regards to the status of the job.

104 Employment Offers Every employment offer should be considered carefully. Each job should be evaluated on its own merits and weighed against other offers before making a decision.

105 Things to Consider When Evaluating a Job Offer
Salary Benefits Working Environment Work Hours Travel Position Opportunity for Advancement

106 Declining or Rejecting a Job Offer
If the job is offered and doesn’t meet the applicant’s needs, immediate response is still required. Either in person or by phone or mail, thank the interviewer for the offer and briefly explain why the decision was made not to accept the position.

107 Terminating Employment
Terminating employment may result from the following: Dismissal (getting fired) Downsizing (layoff) Resigning Retiring

108 Dismissal Usually permanent.
Occurs when the employee hasn’t met the job expectations.

109 Downsizing Termination is generally a result of the business’ financial problems. Employee may be re-hired at a later date. Employer may provide a letter of recommendation to assist with job search. Employee may be eligible to receive unemployment benefits.

110 Resigning Involves an employee terminating his/her own employment.
May result for many reasons such as: Dissatisfaction with job. Moving away. Accepting a different job. Employee should follow company policies for resignation.

111 Resigning Immediate supervisor should be informed of the resignation before sharing the news with other employees. Employees should give “two-weeks notice”. This allows employer to look for others to fill the position and make plans to temporarily distribute the workload.

112 Resigning It is possible that the employee could be re-hired at a later date. Employer will usually provide a positive recommendation during future job searches.

113 Retirement Usually permanent.
Some people retire from a job and seek another job to supplement their income or to keep busy.

114 Keys to Successful Employment
General Skills Specific Skills Employee Traits Employee Ethics

115 Logical and Problem Solving Skills
General Skills Reading Skills Writing Skills Math Skills Speaking Skills Social Skills Logical and Problem Solving Skills

116 Reading Skills Importance
Gives a person the ability to take in and provide new information.

117 Reading Skills Areas of Concern Methods of Improvement Understanding
Concentration Pace Required Environment Pace and Comprehension Relationships Methods of Improvement Implement a program to improve identified weaknesses. Program may be self-developed or developed with counselors, tutors, and/or parents. Continue with program until attaining desired level of reading. Monitor progress periodically.

118 Writing Skills Importance
Communication using letters, memos, and as a part of everyday business.

119 Writing Skills Areas of Concern Methods of Improvement Grammar
Document Formatting Spelling Methods of Improvement Practice! Becoming familiar with tools of written communication and business documents.

120 Math Skills Importance
Essential in every job as well as in life for activities involving money and other tasks, like determining distances and weights.

121 Math Skills Areas of Concern Methods of Improvement
Basic skills such as adding, subtracting, dividing, and multiplying. Progressive math skills are essential for understanding the workings of a business. Methods of Improvement Practice and experience!

122 Speaking Skills Importance
Used to communicate with others in the workplace, with customers, and in society.

123 Speaking Skills Areas of Concern Perception of Others
Portrayal of Sincerity Manners Sense of Authority Clarity Engagement of Audience

124 Speaking Skills Methods of Improvement
Feedback from teachers, friends, or family. Self-analyzing performance when practicing in front of a mirror, listening to audio taped recordings of performance, or viewing video taped recordings of performance.

125 Speaking Skills Effectiveness of speaking skills is also linked to nonverbal language such as: Gestures Facial Expressions Person’s Movements Posture Other Nonverbal Communication Queues

126 Social Skills Importance Areas of Concern
Required to get along with people and work with others. Areas of Concern Respecting Others Teamwork Manners Etiquette

127 Logical and Problem Solving Skills
Importance Required to work through difficult situations or problems. Areas of Concern Person should be able to work through problems with ease and little time. Person must be able to use logic to reason through prejudiced, superstitious, and personal strong feelings or emotions.

128 Logical and Problem Solving Skills
Steps in Problem Solving Determine the exact problem. Develop a list of obstacles that prevent it from being solved. Prepare a list of advantages or resources that are available to work with. Prepare a list of possible solutions. Determine results of each solution. Determine the best solution. Put a plan into action.

129 Specific Skills Specific skills are needed for most positions.
These may come naturally as a talent or be developed through training. Skills are further developed through successes and failures while performing duties of the position.

130 Expected Employee Traits
Ability to work well with others. Reliability and punctuality. Ability to follow and carry out directions. Skill in planning and organizing. Good time management and ability to simplify work. Honesty and loyalty. Neat and professional appearance.

131 Employee Ethics Avoid use of business time for personal matters.
Respect materials as business property. Treat co-workers, supervisors, and managers with respect. Share credit with co-workers and supervisors.

132 Employee Ethics Make complaints through appropriate channels within the company. Show company loyalty. Report problems if they are illegal, cruel, harmful to others, or may cause future problems.

133 Summary Each person must examine their own personal interests, abilities, skills, and resources when exploring careers. Using this information can help one determine career ambitions and a career path.

134 Summary To secure employment, one must work hard, persevere, and be able to sell one’s self through personal documents such as his/her resume and portfolio, and in interviews. To maintain employment, one must possess and continually develop his/her skills, personal traits, and ethics.

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