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How to Write a Literary Essay Mr. Parker 1. Day One  Thesis  Topic Sentences  Quotes/Support 2.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Write a Literary Essay Mr. Parker 1. Day One  Thesis  Topic Sentences  Quotes/Support 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Write a Literary Essay Mr. Parker 1

2 Day One  Thesis  Topic Sentences  Quotes/Support 2

3 Thesis Statement  Read the topic first.  Highlight the key words in the topic.  Your thesis should:  Be one sentence.  Come at the end of the introduction paragraph (last sentence).  Use the key words from the topic (or synonyms of them).  Mention the title and the author of the work (if it hasn’t been mentioned in your intro’s second sentence.)  Usually take a persuasive stance. 3

4 Thesis Statement  Read the __________ first.  Highlight the __________ in the topic.  Your thesis should:  Be __________ sentence.  Come at the __________ of the introduction paragraph (last sentence).  Use the __________ from the topic (or synonyms of them).  Mention the __________ of the work (if it hasn’t been mentioned in your intro’s second sentence.)  Usually take a __________ stance. 4

5 Sample Topic and Thesis As we read Odyssey, we discover that Odysseus is a great example of an epic hero. How do we know? He embodies four characteristics of an epic hero. Write a well-organized essay that proves that Odysseus is a hero using the four traits of GOES. 5

6 Sample Topic and Thesis In his Odyssey, Homer portrays Odysseus as an epic hero using the four qualities of GOES. 6

7 Topic Sentences  You will need one topic sentence for each of your body paragraphs.  Decide how many body paragraphs you need by examining the topic and organizing its parts.  Topic sentences should:  Come first in each body paragraph.  Mention keywords from the thesis.  Use a transition word or phrase.  Set up the topic for the new paragraph. 7

8 Topic Sentences  You will need one topic sentence for each of your __________ paragraphs.  Decide how many body paragraphs you need by examining the topic and organizing its parts.  Topic sentences should:  Come __________ in each body paragraph.  Mention __________ from the thesis.  Use a __________ word or phrase.  Set up the __________ for the new paragraph. 8

9 Sample Topic Sentence The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. 9

10 Quotes and Supporting Details  Many times you will have a graphic organizer or planning sheet to use in gathering support for your essay.  If a sheet is not provided, always take a few minutes to preplan. Use a cluster, an outline, a table, etc. If you fail to plan, you plan to fail  10

11 Quotes and Supporting Details  Using what you know about the piece of literature, list details that will support your thesis.  Go back over your list at the end and make sure erroneous details are taken out.  Remember that we are not summarizing but instead supporting a specific thesis. 11

12 Quotes  Once your details list/web is done, it’s time to find quotes that will integrate nicely with your supporting details.  A quote does not mean something that already has quotation marks around it in the book.  Anytime you take someone else’s words exactly, you put quotation marks around them and then you have a quote! 12

13 Quotes  Once your details list/web is done, it’s time to find quotes that will integrate nicely with your supporting details.  A quote does not mean something that already has __________ around it in the book.  Anytime you take someone else’s words exactly, you put quotation marks around them and then you have a quote! 13

14 Quotes Make sure to write down some important information about the quote as you go:  The exact words of the quote*  The author’s name  Page number(s) if the quote is from prose writing  The line number(s) if the quote is from poetry, including an epic  The act, scene, and line number(s) if the quote is from drama *If you choose to shorten the quote, use ellipses (…) to show where you deleted words. 14

15 Quotes Make sure to write down some important information about the quote as you go:  The __________ words of the quote*  The author’s name  Page number(s) if the quote is from __________ writing  The __________ number(s) if the quote is from poetry, including an epic  The act, scene, and line number(s) if the quote is from __________ *If you choose to shorten the quote, use ellipses (…) to show where you deleted words. 15

16 Days 2-3  Body paragraphs  Integrating quotes 16

17 Body Paragraphs and Quotes Body paragraphs have four basic parts (CDC 2 ):  Claim (topic sentence)  Data (quotes/paraphrases)  Commentary (your unique thoughts about the data—3 rd person only)  Conclusion (transition sentence to next paragraph) 17

18 Body Paragraphs and Quotes Body paragraphs have four basic parts (CDC 2 ):  C __________ (topic sentence)  D __________ (quotes/paraphrases)  C __________ (your unique thoughts about the data— 3 rd person only)  C __________ (transition sentence to next paragraph) 18

19 CDC 2 Claim  Make a claim here that you will prove in this paragraph, otherwise known as a topic sentence.  You already know about topic sentences.  See your notes. 19

20 CDC 2 Claim  Make a claim here that you will prove in this paragraph, otherwise known as a __________.  You already know about topic sentences.  See your notes. 20

21 CDC2CDC2 Data  This is where you will use your well-chosen quote or paraphrase with a lead in and documentation.  Direct quote ending with a question mark or exclamation point:  (act.scene.line)  He says/She says: At the beginning of the play, Juliet obeys her parents’ every wish; when they call her, she comes immediately, saying, “What is your will?” (1.3.6).  Indicate line breaks in a poem or play with forward slashes.  Direct quote ending with a period (act.scene.consecutive lines)  Sentence Lead-in: Juliet even allows her parents to determine how quickly her relationship with Paris will progress: “But no more deep will I endart mine eye / Than your consent gives strength to make it fly” (1.3.98-99). 21

22 CDC2CDC2 Data  This is where you will use your well-chosen __________ with a lead in and __________.  Direct quote ending with a question mark or exclamation point:  (act.scene.line)  He says/She says: At the beginning of the play, Juliet obeys her parents’ every wish; when they call her, she comes immediately, saying, “What is your will?” (1.3.6).  Indicate line breaks in a poem or play with forward slashes.  Direct quote ending with a period (act.scene.consecutive lines)  Sentence Lead-in: Juliet even allows her parents to determine how quickly her relationship with Paris will progress: “But no more deep will I endart mine eye / Than your consent gives strength to make it fly” (1.3.98-99). 22

23 CDC 2 Continued Data (act.scene.non-consecutive lines)  Blended Lead-in: Lord Capulet assumes that Juliet’s refusal to marry Paris is a sign of rebellion, and he calls her “greensickness carrion,” “baggage,” and “tallow-face” (3.5.157, 159).  Document all direct quotes.  **The last two are for research papers only.  Document paraphrased information from secondary sources.  Include the author’s name in either the lead-in or the internal documentation, not __________. 23

24 CDC 2 Continued Data (act.scene.non-consecutive lines)  Blended Lead-in: Lord Capulet assumes that Juliet’s refusal to marry Paris is a sign of rebellion, and he calls her “greensickness carrion,” “baggage,” and “tallow-face” (3.5.157, 159).  Document all __________ quotes.  **The last two are for research papers only.  Document __________ information from secondary sources.  Include the author’s name in either the lead-in or the internal documentation, not __________. 24

25 Body Paragraphs and Quotes  Support the topic sentence with facts, details, incidents, and quotes. Explain or elaborate on these pieces of “evidence” as needed. Continue with substantiating details, quotes, and explanations until you have been thoroughly convincing. (Remember the number 3!)  Show connections between ideas and supporting information, linking them with transitions.  Minimize plot summary but be sure to identify who/what you are talking about and put the situation in context. 25

26 More About Quotes  Fit all quotations smoothly into your discussion.  Do NOT begin a sentence with a quote.  Use lead-ins for all directly quoted material.  Vary the type of lead-ins you use.  Direct quote ending with a questions mark.  Repeat key words occasionally to remind reader of the topic.  Avoid sentences that begin with the words “It,” “This,” “Those,” and “There is/are.” 26

27 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with data: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” (162- 164). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus personifies the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 27

28 CDC 2 Commentary  If you give no quotes in your paper, it is vague.  If you only give quotes in your paper, you will receive a zero for plagiarism. That’s why there’s a need for commentary.  You have to say something that integrates your quotes into your body paragraphs.  Emphasize the trait that the quote illustrates and point your reader back to the thesis. 28

29 CDC 2 Commentary  If you give __________ in your paper, it is vague.  If you __________ give quotes in your paper, you will receive a zero for __________. That’s why there’s a need for commentary.  You have to __________ that integrates your quotes into your body paragraphs.  Emphasize the __________ that the quote illustrates and point your reader back to the __________. 29

30 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with commentary: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” (162- 164). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus personifies the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 30

31 CDC 2 Conclusion sentence  Not to be confused with the conclusion paragraph  Write a “clincher”/concluding sentence that links all the evidence with the topic sentence.  Your concluding sentence should NOT  introduce the next topic  be a direct quote  begin with “In conclusion” 31

32 CDC 2 Conclusion sentence  Not to be confused with the conclusion __________  Write a “clincher”/concluding sentence that __________ all the evidence with the topic sentence.  Your concluding sentence should __________  introduce the next __________  be a direct __________  begin with __________ 32

33 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with conclusion sentence: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” (162- 164). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus fulfills the role of the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 33

34 Day 4 34  Introduction  Conclusion

35 Parts of an Introduction 35  Hook  Background/Summary/Connecting Sentences  Thesis

36 Parts of an Introduction 36  H__________  B__________/Summary/Connecting Sentences  T__________

37 Hook 37 Use DRAPES to give you six options for how to hook a reader:  Dialogue  Rhetorical Question  Analogy  Personal Experience  Example  Statistic

38 Hook 38 Use DRAPES to give you six options for how to hook a reader:  D__________  R__________  A__________  P__________  E__________  S__________

39 DRAPES 39  D stands for dialogue.  Hook the reader with a piece of interesting conversation.  Example: “I can’t believe you!” Sally yelled as she slammed the door on her mom.  Make sure the conversation flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

40 DRAPES 40  D stands for __________.  Hook the reader with a piece of interesting __________.  Example: “I can’t believe you!” Sally yelled as she slammed the door on her mom.  Make sure the conversation flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

41 DRAPES 41  R stands for rhetorical question.  Hook the reader with a thinking question that is not meant to be answered.  Example: What would the world be like if…? How might a person be affected if…?  NON-examples: Do you have a cat? What is the capital of New York?  Make sure the question flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

42 DRAPES 42  R stands for __________ question.  Hook the reader with a __________ question that is not meant to be __________.  Example: What would the world be like if…? How might a person be affected if…?  NON-examples: Do you have a cat? What is the capital of New York?  Make sure the question flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

43 DRAPES 43  A stands for analogy.  Hook the reader with a comparison.  Example: Global warming is to the earth like a sweater is to a person on a summer day.  Make sure the analogy flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

44 DRAPES 44  A stands for __________.  Hook the reader with a __________.  Example: Global warming is to the earth like a sweater is to a person on a summer day.  Make sure the analogy flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

45 DRAPES 45  P stands for personal experience.  Hook the reader with an example of something you have witnessed or heard of.  Caution! Even though the experience is personal, it should be “translated” into third person (no I or you).  Example:  My personal example: I have seen homeless cats roaming around parking lots.  Using it as a hook: Many stray animals are in need of homes today.  Make sure the experience flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

46 DRAPES 46  P stands for _____________________.  Hook the reader with an example of something you have witnessed or heard of.  Caution! Even though the experience is personal, it should be “translated” into __________(no I or you).  Example:  My personal example: I have seen homeless cats roaming around parking lots.  Using it as a hook: Many stray animals are in need of homes today.  Make sure the experience flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

47 DRAPES 47  E stands for example.  Hook the reader with any example.  That’s it. This is the most generic and flexible type of hook.  Make sure the example flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

48 DRAPES 48  E stands for __________.  Hook the reader with any example.  That’s it. This is the most generic and __________ type of hook.  Make sure the example flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

49 DRAPES 49  S stands for statistic.  Hook the reader with any statistic, either real or made- up.  Caution! A made-up statistic should still be believable.  Caution! If the statistic is from research, make sure to give a source on your Works Cited page.  Example: Four out of five people in the world still do not have access to regular dental hygiene.  Non-example: Ninety-nine percent of people will vote for the Green Party in the next election.  Make sure the statistic flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

50 DRAPES 50  S stands for __________.  Hook the reader with any statistic, either real or __________.  Caution! A made-up statistic should still be __________.  Caution! If the statistic is from research, make sure to give a source on your __________page.  Example: Four out of five people in the world still do not have access to regular dental hygiene.  Non-example: Ninety-nine percent of people will vote for the Green Party in the next election.  Make sure the statistic flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

51 Background Sentences 51  Could be summary  Help the hook to flow to the thesis

52 Sample Introduction 52 “You die in blood!” (Homer 870) shouts the angry hero Odysseus upon returning to find that suitors have overrun his home. He has been gone for twenty years and suffered conditions that would have broken the spirits of most ordinary men. However, Odysseus is no ordinary man. In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus proves that he is an epic hero through being glorified, on a quest, ethical, and strong. Hook Background sentences Thesis

53 Day 5 53  Formatting  Peer editing

54 Formatting Tips 54  Font: Times New Roman OR Calibri, Size 12  One-inch margins  Page Number  Insert  Page Number  Top of page  Option 3  Type your last name.  Hit the space bar once.  Change font to match the rest of the paper.

55 Formatting Tips 55  MLA Heading  Click out of the header.  In left margin of FIRST PAGE ONLY, type  Your name  Teacher’s name  Class name  Date: 5 November 2012  Title  Non-example: Odyssey Essay  Base title on thesis  Centered  Formatted just like the rest of the paper (no bold, italic, etc.)

56 Formatting Tips 56  Spacing  Double space throughout  Use the up/down arrow button to delete extra spaces  Literary Present Tense  All verbs present tense  Literature still happening the same way when we open the book


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