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How to Write a Literary Essay Mrs. Lolley 1. List-Group-Label 2  Make sure you have listed 25-30 connections between The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Write a Literary Essay Mrs. Lolley 1. List-Group-Label 2  Make sure you have listed 25-30 connections between The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Write a Literary Essay Mrs. Lolley 1

2 List-Group-Label 2  Make sure you have listed connections between The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible. Write page numbers/keywords down on the sticky notes before you remove them from the book.  Find patterns and group your sticky notes.  Write a title on each group, and throw away any extras (outliers that don’t fit a certain group.)

3 Day One  Thesis  Topic Sentences  Quotes/Support 3

4 Thesis Statement  Read the topic first.  Highlight the key words in the topic.  Your thesis should:  Be one sentence.  Come at the end of the introduction paragraph (last sentence).  Use the key words from the topic (or synonyms of them).  Mention the title and the author of the work (if it hasn’t been mentioned in your intro’s second sentence.)  Usually take a persuasive stance. 4

5 Thesis Statement  Read the __________ first.  Highlight the __________ in the topic.  Your thesis should:  Be __________ sentence.  Come at the __________ of the introduction paragraph (last sentence).  Use the __________ from the topic (or synonyms of them).  Mention the __________ of the work (if it hasn’t been mentioned in your intro’s second sentence.)  Usually take a __________ stance. 5

6 Thesis Statement 6  Now, choose the sticky note group that has the most examples. You will use this topic to create your thesis.  Your thesis can be either a comparison between the novel and play OR a contrast.  Sample thesis sentence frames:  COMPARE: In both The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter, a unifying element is __________________________.  CONTRAST: Though both The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter contain ________________, their treatment of the topic is different; the novel ______________, while the play ____________________.

7 Thesis Statement 7 You want your thesis to be broad enough that you can write several paragraphs about parts of it but narrow enough to relate to these specific works.

8 Break! 8 Take a minute now to brainstorm possible themes for your Romeo and Juliet essay using the sheet provided.

9 Sample Thesis: The Book Thief 9  The first way that Liesel is a survivor is that she lives through family trauma.

10 Sample Topic and Thesis As we read Odyssey, we discover that Odysseus is a great example of an epic hero. How do we know? He embodies four characteristics of an epic hero. Write a well-organized essay that proves that Odysseus is a hero using the four traits of GOES. 10

11 Sample Topic and Thesis In his Odyssey, Homer portrays Odysseus as an epic hero using the four qualities of GOES. OR In Paul Fleischman’s coming-of-age novel Whirligig, Brent Bishop is an unlikely hero who undergoes all ten stages of the heroic journey. 11

12 Topic Sentences  You will need one topic sentence for each of your body paragraphs.  Decide how many body paragraphs you need by examining the topic and organizing its parts.  Topic sentences should:  Come first in each body paragraph.  Mention keywords from the thesis.  Use a transition word or phrase.  Set up the topic for the new paragraph. 12

13 Topic Sentences  You will need one topic sentence for each of your __________ paragraphs.  Decide how many body paragraphs you need by examining the topic and organizing its parts.  Topic sentences should:  Come __________ in each body paragraph.  Mention __________ from the thesis.  Use a __________ word or phrase.  Set up the __________ for the new paragraph. 13

14 Sample Thesis and Topic Sentence 14  In William Shakespeare’s tragedy Romeo and Juliet, one of the more powerful themes it emits is that hasty actions have unfortunate consequences.  From the beginning of the play, hasty decisions about love cause turmoil.  Topic: adultery causes problems  Family  Sample: The first arena in which adultery causes issues is in the family arena.

15 Sample Topic Sentence The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. OR Brent first proves that he is a hero when he receives his call to adventure, prepares for the journey, and finds allies. 15

16 Sample Thesis: The Book Thief 16  In Markus Zusak’s novel The Book Thief, one survivor is Frau Diller.

17 Quotes and Supporting Details  Many times you will have a graphic organizer or planning sheet to use in gathering support for your essay.  If a sheet is not provided, always take a few minutes to preplan. Use a cluster, an outline, a table, etc. If you fail to plan, you plan to fail  17

18 Quotes and Supporting Details  Using what you know about the piece of literature, list details that will support your thesis.  Go back over your list at the end and make sure erroneous details are taken out.  Remember that we are not summarizing but instead supporting a specific thesis. 18

19 Quotes  Once your details list/web is done, it’s time to find quotes that will integrate nicely with your supporting details.  A quote does not mean something that already has quotation marks around it in the book.  Anytime you take someone else’s words exactly, you put quotation marks around them and then you have a quote! 19

20 Quotes  Once your details list/web is done, it’s time to find quotes that will integrate nicely with your supporting details.  A quote does not mean something that already has __________ around it in the book.  Anytime you take someone else’s words exactly, you put quotation marks around them and then you have a quote! 20

21 Quotes Make sure to write down some important information about the quote as you go:  The exact words of the quote*  The author’s name  Page number(s) if the quote is from prose writing  Example: Brent accepts his call to adventure when he tells Mrs. Zamora, “’I’ll do it’” (Fleischman 42).  The line number(s) if the quote is from poetry, including an epic  The act, scene, and line number(s) if the quote is from drama *If you choose to shorten the quote, use ellipses (…) to show where you deleted words. 21

22 Quotes Make sure to write down some important information about the quote as you go:  The __________ words of the quote*  The author’s name  Page number(s) if the quote is from __________ writing  The __________ number(s) if the quote is from poetry, including an epic  The act, scene, and line number(s) if the quote is from __________ *If you choose to shorten the quote, use ellipses (…) to show where you deleted words. 22

23 Quotes for Scarlet Letter/Crucible Essay 23  In each body paragraph, you will need one quote from the play AND one from the novel  If you have three body paragraphs (minimum number), you will need six quotes  Make sure to document appropriately, or they do not count!  Examples:  As he is being dragged to his hanging, John Proctor screams, “I will die innocent!” (I.2.3).—play  Instead of dying with his shame, Dimmesdale reveals his scarlet mark, crying, “Look what God has burned upon me!” (Hawthorne 252).—novel

24 Essay HW 24  Tonight—finish thesis, topic sentences, and quotes  Wed—finish first two body paragraphs  Thurs by 11:50 PM—finish and upload all body paragraphs to the ROUGH DRAFT assignment on turnitin.com  Friday by 11:50 PM—review two other papers using PEER REVIEW assignment on turnitin.com  Weekend—add intro and conclusion; reflect on peer feedback and make changes  Sunday by 11:50 PM—upload final copy to turnitin.com under REVISION assignment **If you are having turnitin.com trouble, I need to know today! No excuses.

25 Days 2-3  Body paragraphs  Integrating quotes 25

26 Body Paragraphs and Quotes Body paragraphs have four basic parts (CDC 2 ):  Claim (topic sentence)  Data (quotes/paraphrases) *1-2 quotes per paragraph  Commentary (relate your data back to the claim)  Conclusion (concludes this paragraph by rephrasing the topic sentence/claim) Remember that the CDC is the Centers for Disease Control. If your body paragraphs don’t have CDC 2, they will be sickly! 26

27 Body Paragraphs and Quotes Body paragraphs have four basic parts (CDC 2 ):  C __________ (topic sentence)  D __________ (quotes/paraphrases)  C __________ (your unique thoughts about the data— 3 rd person only)  C __________ (concludes this paragraph by rephrasing the topic sentence/claim) Remember that the CDC is the Centers for Disease Control. If your body paragraphs don’t have CDC 2, they will be sickly! 27

28 CDC 2 Claim  Make a claim here that you will prove in this paragraph, otherwise known as a topic sentence.  You already know about topic sentences.  See your notes. 28

29 CDC 2 Claim  Make a claim here that you will prove in this paragraph, otherwise known as a __________.  You already know about topic sentences.  See your notes. 29

30 CDC2CDC2 Data  This is where you will use your well-chosen quote or paraphrase with a lead in and documentation. FOR DIRECT QUOTES:  If your quote ends with a question mark or exclamation point in the text, punctuate as follows:  Juliet shows her acquiescence to her parents’ every demand when she asks, “What is your will ? ” (1.3.6 ).  Note that the question mark is inside the quotation marks and the period is after the parentheses.  If your quote ends with a period in the text, punctuate as follows:  “But no more deep will I endart mine eye / Than your consent gives strength to make it fly” ( ).  Note that the period is saved for outside the parentheses. ** Note that the line breaks in a poem or play are indicated with forward slashes. 30

31 CDC2CDC2 Data  This is where you will use your well-chosen _______ or _______ with a lead in and documentation. FOR DIRECT QUOTES:  If your quote ends with a __________________in the text, punctuate as follows:  Juliet shows her acquiescence to her parents’ every demand when she asks, “What is your will ? ” (1.3.6 ).  Note that the question mark is _______the quotation marks and the period is _______ the parentheses.  If your quote ends with a period in the text, punctuate as follows:  “But no more deep will I endart mine eye / Than your consent gives strength to make it fly” ( ).  Note that the _______ is saved for outside the parentheses. ** Note that the line breaks in a poem or play are indicated with _______. 31

32 CDC 2 Continued Data How to lead in:  Sentence lead in  Explanatory phrase/dependent clause lead in  Embedded pieces of quotations 32

33 CDC 2 Continued Data How to lead in:  ___________ lead in  Explanatory phrase/ ___________ clause lead in  Embedded ___________ of quotations 33

34 CDC 2 Continued Data Sentence Lead-In:  Could stand on its own  Is followed by a colon that precedes the quotation  Example: Even though his men are tired, they exclaim about Odysseus’ ability not to tire like other men: “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of’” ( ). 34

35 CDC 2 Continued Data ___________ Lead-In:  Could stand ___________  Is followed by a ___________ that precedes the quotation  Example: Even though his men are tired, they exclaim about Odysseus’ ability not to tire like other men: “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of’” ( ). 35

36 CDC 2 Continued Data Explanatory phrase/dependent clause lead in:  Cannot stand on its own  Is followed by a comma that precedes the quotation  Example: Even though his men are tired, they exclaim,“’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of’” ( ). 36

37 CDC 2 Continued Data Explanatory phrase/ ___________ lead in:  ___________ stand on its own  Is followed by a ___________ that precedes the quotation  Example: Even though his men are tired, they exclaim,“’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of’” ( ). 37

38 CDC 2 Continued Data Embedded pieces of quotations:  Usually words or phrases pulled out from a longer quotation and put in quotation marks  Might even come from different pages  Worked into the flow of a regular sentence  Example: Odysseus’ men can’t believe that he is made of “flesh and blood” when he endures hardship and loneliness as they call him someone who is “more than a man” and “iron” ( ). 38

39 CDC 2 Continued Data Embedded ___________ of quotations:  Usually words or phrases pulled out from a ___________ quotation and put in quotation marks  Might even come from different pages  Worked into the ___________ of a regular sentence  Example: Odysseus’ men can’t believe that he is made of “flesh and blood” when he endures hardship and loneliness as they call him someone who is “more than a man” and “iron” ( ). 39

40 CDC 2 Continued Data  Document all direct quotes.  **The last two are for research papers only.  Document paraphrased information from secondary sources.  Include the author’s name in either the lead-in or the internal documentation, not both. 40

41 CDC 2 Continued Data  Document all __________ quotes.  **The last two are for research papers only.  Document __________ information from secondary sources.  Include the author’s name in either the lead-in or the internal documentation, not __________. 41

42 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with data: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” ( ). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus personifies the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 42

43 CDC 2 Commentary  If you give no quotes in your paper, it is vague.  If you only give quotes in your paper, you will receive a zero for plagiarism. That’s why there’s a need for commentary.  You have to say something that integrates your quotes into your body paragraphs.  Emphasize the trait that the quote illustrates and point your reader back to the thesis. 43

44 CDC 2 Commentary  If you give __________ in your paper, it is vague.  If you __________ give quotes in your paper, you will receive a zero for __________. That’s why there’s a need for commentary.  You have to __________ that integrates your quotes into your body paragraphs.  Emphasize the __________ that the quote illustrates and point your reader back to the __________. 44

45 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with commentary: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” ( ). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus personifies the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 45

46 CDC 2 Conclusion sentence  Not to be confused with the conclusion paragraph  Write a “clincher”/concluding sentence that links all the evidence with the topic sentence.  Your concluding sentence should NOT  introduce the next topic  be a direct quote  begin with “In conclusion” 46

47 CDC 2 Conclusion sentence  Not to be confused with the conclusion __________  Write a “clincher”/concluding sentence that __________ all the evidence with the topic sentence.  Your concluding sentence should __________  introduce the next __________  be a direct __________  begin with __________ 47

48 Sample Paragraph Sample body paragraph with conclusion sentence: The first way that Odysseus is an epic hero is that he’s glorified by others in the epic. Even though his men are tired, they exclaim, “’Are you flesh and blood, Odysseus, to endure/More than a man can? Do you never tire?/…iron is what you’re made of” ( ). They can’t believe that an ordinary man could be at sea and homesick for so long and still fight his base urges of hunger and sickness. Thus, they elevate him almost to the level of a god.* As a glorified protagonist, Odysseus fulfills the role of the epic hero he’s called to be. *Repeat DC as needed. 48

49 Sample for Scarlet Letter/Crucible CDC2 49 One pair of characters who share common characteristics are Tituba and Reverend Dimmesdale. At first glance, one is a voodoo-believing slave from Barbados and the other a holy minister from Harvard. However, inside they are the same; they are both the victims of caring too much. Shortly before Tituba is beaten and confesses to witchcraft, she reacts to Parris’ daughter’s illness, exclaiming, “I love me Betty!” (I.1.926). Because she lives in the house and tends to the needs of the family, she is the easiest one for Abigail to blame for her own troubles. Dimmesdale probably entered his predicament the same way; a lonely “widow” must have come to him for counsel, and he and Hester formed a spiritual bond that later become a conjugal one. He shows his care for her as he ascends the scaffold, promising an afterlife for Hester “better…than what [they] dreamed of in the forest” (Hawthorne 245). Just as icebergs appear on surface to be much less than what they are, so do these characters appear. Both are victims of their own compassion and a society that won’t let them win.

50 Day 4 50  Introduction  Conclusion  Title

51 Parts of an Introduction 51  Hook  Background/Summary/Connecting Sentences  Thesis

52 Parts of an Introduction 52  H__________  B__________/Summary/Connecting Sentences  T__________

53 Hook 53 Use DRAPES to give you six options for how to hook a reader:  Dialogue  Rhetorical Question  Analogy  Personal Experience  Example  Statistic

54 Hook 54 Use DRAPES to give you six options for how to hook a reader:  D__________  R__________  A__________  P__________  E__________  S__________

55 DRAPES 55  D stands for dialogue.  Hook the reader with a piece of interesting conversation.  Example: “I can’t believe you!” Sally yelled as she slammed the door on her mom.  Make sure the conversation flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

56 DRAPES 56  D stands for __________.  Hook the reader with a piece of interesting __________.  Example: “I can’t believe you!” Sally yelled as she slammed the door on her mom.  Make sure the conversation flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

57 DRAPES 57  R stands for rhetorical question.  Hook the reader with a thinking question that is not meant to be answered.  Example: What would the world be like if…? How might a person be affected if…?  NON-examples: Do you have a cat? What is the capital of New York?  Make sure the question flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

58 DRAPES 58  R stands for __________ question.  Hook the reader with a __________ question that is not meant to be __________.  Example: What would the world be like if…? How might a person be affected if…?  NON-examples: Do you have a cat? What is the capital of New York?  Make sure the question flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

59 DRAPES 59  A stands for analogy.  Hook the reader with a comparison.  Example: Global warming is to the earth like a sweater is to a person on a summer day.  Make sure the analogy flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

60 DRAPES 60  A stands for __________.  Hook the reader with a __________.  Example: Global warming is to the earth like a sweater is to a person on a summer day.  Make sure the analogy flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

61 DRAPES 61  P stands for personal experience.  Hook the reader with an example of something you have witnessed or heard of.  Caution! Even though the experience is personal, it should be “translated” into third person (no I or you).  Example:  My personal example: I have seen homeless cats roaming around parking lots.  Using it as a hook: Many stray animals are in need of homes today.  Make sure the experience flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

62 DRAPES 62  P stands for _____________________.  Hook the reader with an example of something you have witnessed or heard of.  Caution! Even though the experience is personal, it should be “translated” into __________(no I or you).  Example:  My personal example: I have seen homeless cats roaming around parking lots.  Using it as a hook: Many stray animals are in need of homes today.  Make sure the experience flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

63 DRAPES 63  E stands for example.  Hook the reader with any example.  That’s it. This is the most generic and flexible type of hook.  Make sure the example flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

64 DRAPES 64  E stands for __________.  Hook the reader with any example.  That’s it. This is the most generic and __________ type of hook.  Make sure the example flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

65 DRAPES 65  S stands for statistic.  Hook the reader with any statistic, either real or made- up.  Caution! A made-up statistic should still be believable.  Caution! If the statistic is from research, make sure to give a source on your Works Cited page.  Example: Four out of five people in the world still do not have access to regular dental hygiene.  Non-example: Ninety-nine percent of people will vote for the Green Party in the next election.  Make sure the statistic flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

66 DRAPES 66  S stands for __________.  Hook the reader with any statistic, either real or __________.  Caution! A made-up statistic should still be __________.  Caution! If the statistic is from research, make sure to give a source on your __________page.  Example: Four out of five people in the world still do not have access to regular dental hygiene.  Non-example: Ninety-nine percent of people will vote for the Green Party in the next election.  Make sure the statistic flows into your next sentences and into your thesis.

67 Background Sentences 67  Could be summary  Help the hook to flow to the thesis

68 Background Sentences 68  Could be ___________  Help the hook to _________ to the thesis

69 Sample Introduction 69 “You die in blood!” (Homer 870) shouts the angry hero Odysseus upon returning to find that suitors have overrun his home. He has been gone for twenty years and suffered conditions that would have broken the spirits of most ordinary men. However, Odysseus is no ordinary man. In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus proves that he is an epic hero through being glorified, on a quest, ethical, and strong. Hook Background sentences Thesis

70 Conclusion 70  Recaps, not repeats, thesis  Recaps major points  Leaves the reader with a “so what” sentence, not a question (directions on next slide)  connect to larger themes in the play  connect to other works of literature  connect to life

71 Conclusion 71  Recaps, not ___________, thesis  Recaps ___________ points  Leaves the reader with a “___________” sentence, not a question (directions on next slide)  connect to larger ___________ in the play  connect to other ___________ of literature  connect to ___________

72 Conclusions to Avoid 72  a repeat of the introduction – Do not simply replay your introduction.  a new direction – Do not introduce a subject different from the one your essay has been about.  a sweeping generalization – Do not conclude more than you reasonably can from the evidence you have presented.  an apology – Do not cast doubt on your essay. Do not say, “Even though I’m no expert….” **Do not begin your conclusion with the words “In conclusion.”

73 Conclusions to Avoid 73  a ___________ of the introduction – Do not simply replay your introduction.  a ___________ direction – Do not introduce a subject different from the one your essay has been about.  a sweeping ___________ – Do not conclude more than you reasonably can from the evidence you have presented.  an ___________ – Do not cast ___________ on your essay. Do not say, “Even though I’m no expert….” **Do not begin your conclusion with the words “In ___________.”

74 Conclusion 74 Practicing the “so what”:  You will work with a partner; Partner A will ask questions and take notes. Partner B will respond to the questions.  Partner A asks, “What is your paper about?”  Partner B responds orally while Partner A takes notes on everything he/she says.  Partner A says, “So what?” or “Why should I care?” These are the only responses Partner A may make.  Partner B responds and Partner A continues to take notes.  Continue for 5-10 minutes. The notes that Partner A took will serve as a basis for the conclusion.  Trade roles and follow the steps again.

75 Sample Conclusion 75  Throughout his “odyssey” home, Odysseus embodies all four traits of GOES. His crew and son glorify him. He cannot rest from his mission to get home, though he is distracted by multiple stops on his quest. Even in tempting situations, he maintains his ethics, and his strength is unmatched by any other mortal. Like Superman or Bat Girl, but without the cape, Odysseus proves his heroism and leaves a legacy for generations. Recap of thesis Recap of major points “So what” statement

76 Title 76  Your title should not be something like Whirligig Essay.  It should be based on your thesis.  All important words should be capitalized.  You should not:  Put your title in a different font.  Put extra spaces around your title.  Make your title a sentence.  Underline, use quotation marks, or italicize your title.  **Note: If you use the title of the literature as part of your title, punctuate just that part appropriately.

77 Title 77  Your title should not be something like _____________.  It should be based on your _________.  All important words should be __________.  You should not:  Put your title in a different _______.  Put extra __________ around your title.  Make your title a ___________.  ________, use __________ marks, or _________ your title.  **Note: If you use the title of the ________ as part of your title, ___________ just that part appropriately.

78 Day 5 78  Formatting  Peer editing

79 Formatting Tips 79  Font: Times New Roman OR Calibri, Size 12  One-inch margins  Page Number  Insert  Page Number  Top of page  Option 3  Type your last name.  Hit the space bar once.  Change font to match the rest of the paper.

80 Formatting Tips 80  MLA Heading  Click out of the header.  In left margin of FIRST PAGE ONLY, type  Your name  Teacher’s name  Class name  Date: 5 November 2012  Title  Non-example: Odyssey Essay  Base title on thesis  Centered  Formatted just like the rest of the paper (no bold, italic, etc.)

81 Formatting Tips 81  Spacing  Double space throughout  Use the up/down arrow button to delete extra spaces  Literary Present Tense  All verbs present tense  Literature still happening the same way when we open the book  Length of Essay  Minimum: 2 pages  Maximum: 3 pages MUST HAVE WORKS CITED PAGE FOR LITERARY ESSAYS AND RESEARCH PAPER!

82 Formatting Tips 82  Spacing  ___________ space throughout  Use the ___________ button to delete extra spaces  Literary Present Tense  All verbs ___________ tense  Literature still ___________ the same way when we open the book


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