Presentation on theme: "Using Lead-ins, Quotes, and Lead-Outs in paragraphs and multi-paragraph essays."— Presentation transcript:
Using Lead-ins, Quotes, and Lead-Outs in paragraphs and multi-paragraph essays
Topic Sentence Every good paragraph has a topic sentence that directs the reader as to what will be discussed in the paragraph. A topic sentence should not begin with: In this paragraph I am going to explain… If you are writing only one paragraph, your topic sentence should restate the question in the form of an answer and then answer the question given. If you are writing a multi-paragraph essay, your topic sentence should address a part of your thesis.
LI, Q, LO When you write a well-developed paragraph, you will use a minimum of three quotes. Quotes must always be sandwiched in between a lead-in and a lead-out. The three work in sequence. LI, Q, LO is a sequence that keeps repeating between the topic and conclusion until you have given all of your evidence.
Lead-ins Every good paragraph has lead-in sentences that introduce the quotes. The lead in should give context for the quote (any pertinent information that the reader needs to know before reading the quote) It should also summarize what is in the quote. It may be more than one sentence.
Quotes Every good paragraph has quotes that back up the topic sentence. It is important that quotes are well chosen and that you can fully explain them in the lead-out. Remember that a quote is NOT the same as dialogue.
How to cite a quote in-text Use parenthetical citation (MLA style) when citing the quote. Use quotation marks around the sentence you are quoting. Put the author and page number in parentheses after the quotation marks. Punctuation goes after the citation.
What is a quote? Quoteany phrase, sentence, or group of sentences taken directly from a piece of literature in the authors exact words. Once you take the phrase, sentence, etc. and copy it into your paragraph or paper, you need to put it in quotation marks to show that the words are not your own. If you dont put it in quotation marks, it is plagiarism.
What is dialogue? Dialoguewords that are in quotation marks in the book because characters are speaking them out loud. If you choose to quote a piece of dialogue from the literature, you must triple quote it in your paper. That means you will use single quotation marks around the dialogue, and then regular quotation marks around the entire quote. You will still cite the author in parentheses at the end of the quote; never cite the characters name.
Integrating Quotations After the lead-in, you will need to make a transition into a quotation. Each transition requires the use of different punctuation. You must decide the best way to integrate a quote depending on the quotation you are using. There are four ways to integrate quotations. Adapted from: Rambo, Randy. Integrating Quotations into Sentences. 1 Aug Illinois Valley Community College. 7 Sept Web.
1. Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence (lead-in), followed with a colon. This is an easy rule to remember: if you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, you need a colon after the sentence. Albert Einstein reminds us all to never waste our life being selfish: Only a live lived for others is worth living.
2. After your lead-in, use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation with a comma. You should use a comma to separate your own words from the quotation when your introductory or explanatory phrase ends with a verb such as "says," "said," "thinks," "believes," "pondered," "recalls," "questions," and "asks" (and many more). You should also use a comma when you introduce a quotation with an attribution phrase such as "According to Mr. Ditch. Homer Simpson shouted, I am so smart, I am so smart. S-M-R-T! I mean, S-M-A-R-T!
3. Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation between your own words and the words you are quoting. Notice that the word "that" is used in examples. When it is used as it is in the example, "that" replaces the comma which would be necessary without "that" in the sentence. You usually have a choice, then, when you begin a sentence with a phrase such as "Thoreau says." You either can add a comma after "says," or you can add the word "that" with no comma. Jerry Seinfield once said that there are Four Levels of Comedy: make your friends laugh, make strangers laugh, get paid to make strangers laugh, and make people talk like you because it's so much fun."
4. Use short quotations--only a few words--as part of your own sentence. When you integrate quotations in this way, you do not use any special punctuation. Instead, you should punctuate the sentence just as you would if all of the words were your own. An Irish saying reminds us that friends that gossip with you may also be friends that gossip about you.
Lead-Outs The lead out explains why the quote is important and how it is related to your thesis. A strong lead out should identify the key words or parts of the quote that support your point and relate the information back to your thesis. The length of your lead out should reflect the length of the quotation-the longer the quote the more lead outs you will need to explain it.
Conclusion The conclusion sentences summarize why the question/topic you addressed is important. In a multi-paragraph essay, it can also transition into your next paragraph. It should restate your main idea. It should not be the exact words used in your topic sentence.