Presentation on theme: "Safe Environment Contract This classroom must be an environment in which all cadets feel safe asking questions and learning about the human reproductive."— Presentation transcript:
Safe Environment Contract This classroom must be an environment in which all cadets feel safe asking questions and learning about the human reproductive system.
Safe Environment Contract Contract: – I understand that I am welcome to ask scientifically-relevant questions, using anatomically-correct terminology. – I understand that I have the right to feel safe and comfortable in this class and outside of it when discussing classwork and/or topics. – I understand that if I feel uncomfortable or threatened in any way that I have the right to come forward for help without fear of repercussion. – I understand that under NO circumstances will ANY harassment (whether verbal, emotional, physical, or otherwise) be tolerated against any other person(s) in the class. – Consequences for harassment can include parent/guardian intervention, administrative referrals, or police involvement, as necessary and warranted.
Safe Environment Contract If I do not choose to sign and/or respect the regulations outlined in the contract I will be removed from class activities, discussions, and other interactions. – Alternative work will only earn up to 70% of the normal grade.
Human Reproductive Systems
PART 1 The Male Reproductive System
Overview To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
Penis Male organ used during sexual intercourse. Three parts 1.Root Attaches to abdominal wall 2.Body (Shaft) 3.Glans Cone-shaped “head” Covered by the foreskin Circumcision: removal of foreskin
Penis The body of the penis is composed of three circular chambers – 2 Corpora Cavernosa – 1 Corpus Spongisum These tissues contain large spaces that become engorged with blood when the male is aroused. – This causes the penis to become erect and allows for penetration during sex.
Scrotum Pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis Houses the testicles Function – “Climate-control” for testicles For optimal sperm development the testicles must be slightly below body temperature Muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (keep the testicles warmer) or relax (let the testicles cool down)
Testicles (Testes) Generate sperm and produce testosterone – Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone
Testicles (Testes) Seminiferous tubules within the testicles produce sperm cells
Sperm Cells Arcosome – Enzyme-filled tip that allows the sperm to penetrate the egg Head – Contains half of man’s DNA Midpiece (body) – Contains mitochondria to provide energy for sperm movement Flagella (tail) – Propels the sperm toward the egg
Epididymis Transports and stores sperm cells which were produced in the testicles Brings sperm to maturity – Sperm produced by the testicles are immature and incapable of fertilization
Vas Deferens Muscular tube that transports mature sperm to the urethra
Urethra Tube which carries – Urine from the bladder – Semen from the testicles/seminal vesicles When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra – This means that only semen is expelled (ejaculated) during orgasm
Seminal Vesicles Produces sugar-rich fluid that becomes mixed with the sperm cells – Provides sperm with energy to move This fluid makes up most of the male’s ejaculatory fluid (ejaculate)
Prostate Gland Provides additional fluids that are part of the ejaculate – Helps nourish the sperm
PART 2 The Female Reproductive System: Internal Structures
Overview Produces female reproductive cells called ova (eggs) Moves ova to site of fertilization, then to the developmental chamber If no fertilization/implantation, designed to menstruate – Shedding of the uterine lining Produces female sex hormones
Overview Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina
Ovaries Produce ova (eggs) and hormones
Fallopian Tubes Tubes which connect ovaries to the uterus Conception (fertilization of an ovum by sperm) occurs here
Uterus Houses the developing fetus after a fertilized ovum implants in the uterine wall Two parts: – Cervix: Lower part which opens into the vagina; muscular ring – Corpus: Main body of organ Endometrium: lining of the uterus
Vagina Canal which joins cervix to the outside of the body Also known as the “birth canal”
PART 3 The Female Reproductive System: External Structures
Overview Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora Hymen Bartholin’s glands Clitoris These organs are collectively called the vulva
Mons Pubis Adipose tissue (fat) lying above the pubic bone After puberty it enlarges and becomes covered with hair Mons pubis
Labia Majora “Large lips” – Comparable to the scrotum in males Protects other external reproductive organs Contain sweat and oil- secreting glands
Labia Minora “Small lips” Located just inside the labia majora – Surrounding the vaginal and urethral openings Note: Males have one orifice for urine excretion and copulation while females have two separate orifices for these functions.
Hymen Membrane which surrounds or partially covers the vaginal opening – The opening to the vagina can vary in size – Does NOT fully cover the vaginal opening In rare cases, the hymen may occlude the vaginal opening (imperforate hymen) and surgery may be required
Hymen Usually wears away by puberty due to various causes – Athletics – Tampon/menstrual cup usage – Washing – Self-exploration (masturbation) – Even just walking!
Bartholin’s Glands Located beside the vaginal opening Produce a mucosal secretion – Serves as lubrication for the labia during sexual intercourse – This is NOT the main source of vaginal lubrication
Lubrication The vagina itself does NOT contain glands! – The majority of the natural lubrication produced during arousal is actually plasma seepage due to vascular engorgement Plasma is the light yellow liquid in blood that holds the blood cells in suspension. Vascular engorgement in an eye
Clitoris Small protrusion with an abundance of nerves – Comparable to the penis in males Covered by the prepuce – Comparable to the foreskin in males Becomes erect during arousal