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Antropometrické metody používané v biologické antropologii Pavel Bláha

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Anthropometrical assessment is a scientific specialization concerned with the application of measurement to appraise human size, shape, proportion, composition, maturation and gross function. It is a basic discipline for problem-solving in matters related to growth, exercise, performance and nutrition.

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The area has been defined as the quantitative interface between anatomy and physiology. It puts the individual athlete into objective focus and provides a clear appraisal of his or her structural status at any given time, or, more importantly, provides for quantification of differential growth.

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There are plenty of methods used in distinguished countries. Martin-Saller method (Lehrbuch der Antropologie,1957) is mostly being used in middle Europe and other countries. Anthropometry appears deceptively simple. Mastery, however, is somewhat analogous to playing a musical instrument with style and grace. With some formal training and persistent practice, it can be easy and enjoyable and can produce amazingly accurate data. The development of an anthropometrist’s touch is seldom achieved without extensive practice.

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It varies from individual to individual, but most seem to achieve reasonable competence after triple-measurement and spot-checking for systematic error with criterion anthropometry measures on 100 or more subjects. A “criterion anthropometrist”, by definition, is one who purportedly does not make systematic errors from a prescribed technique.

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In assessing individual status with respect to a particular norm, it is necessary that a high level of precision and accuracy be attained by the measurer. Precision is a matter of how consistent a measurer is with him or herself (intra-observer reliability) or with other measurers (inter-observer reliability). Accuracy is a matter of how closely obtained measures conform to true or ideal measures. In the measurement sequence, only right side values of the subject are taken in surveys. When there is a question of bilateral asymmetry, however, both sides should be taken.

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Knussman R.,: Anthropologie, Handbuch der vergleichenden Biologie des Menschen., Wojfram B., Jung K. et al.: Sportanthropologie, Methoden und Ergebnisse am beispiel der Luftdisziplienen und des Skurrensports. The Camgridge Encyklopedia of Human Growth and Development – edited by Ulijaszek S.J., Johnston F. E., Preece M.A. Anthropometrie the individual and the population – edited by Ulijaszek L.J. and Marcie- Taylor C.G.N. Kinanthtopometric Assessesment – Mike Marfell- Jones. Web page for New Zealand Anthropometry: http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~rip/Anthropometry/

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Methods of classical anthropometry hold and important place in common routine practice because they are non-invasive, relatively cheap, saving time and suitable for field work. We use two basic ways of anthropometric measurement of living persons: cephalic parameters body parameters

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a) Hlavové rozměry jsou důležité pro posouzení růstu hlavy, především v období od narození do 6 let věku dítěte. Využití: plastická chirurgie, stomatologie, stomatochirurgie. b) Tělesné rozměry jsou důležité pro monitorování růstu, stanovení komponent tělesného složení (Matiegkovy rovnice, metoda Drinkwatera-Rosse), stanovení somatotypu (Heath-Carter method), posouzení proporcionality jednotlivce (např. Z-score, Percalovy indexy, vypracování referenčních standard). Využití: pediatrie, endokrinoloige, obezitologie, ortopedie, ergonomie, sportovní antropologie atd.

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Segment lengths General technique: The segmometer housing is held in the right hand throughout all the direct length measurements. The lengths are measured with the tape parallel to the long axis of a bone or body segment. The tape is held so the ends of the cotter pins are in contact with the marked sites at the end of each segment or length and the reading is taken at the edge of the housing end cotter pin, at the side to which the bevel runs upward, to the nearest 0.1 cm.

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Selected cephalic points GLABELLA (g) Glabella is the most prominent midline point above the nasal root, on the lower part of the forehead between the eyebrows. NASION (n) Nasion is the point in the midline of the nasofrontal suture. The slight ridge on which it is situated can be felt by an observer’s fingernail. EURYON (eu) Euryon is the most prominent lateral point on each side of the skull found on the parietal or temporal bones. It is identified by measuring the greatest width of the head. GNATHION (gn) Gnathion is the lowest median point on the lower edge of the mandible in the most anterior position. It is identified by palpation from below.

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OPISTHOCRANION (op) Opisthocranion is the point situated at the midline of the occipital bone which is most distant from the glabella. ZYGION (zy) Zygion is the most lateral point of each zygomatic arc. It is identified by measuring the greatest width of the face. FRONTOTEMPORALE (ft) Frontotemporale is the point on each side of the forehead, on the linea temporalis most forwards and closest to the midline, in the place where the lineas temporalis are closest together. GONION (go) Gonion is the most lateral and interior point on the mandibular angle.

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Selected cephalic dimensions MAXIMUM HEAD WIDTH (eu – eu) The distance between both euryon points WIDTH OF THE FACE – BIZYGION DISTANCE (zy – zy) The distance between both zygion points measured perpendicularly to the sagittal plane

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Selected cephalic dimensions MAXIMUM HEAD LENGTH (g – op) The distance between the glabella and opisthocranion MORPHOLOGICAL HEIGHT OF THE FACE (n – gn) The distance between the nasion and the gnathion HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE The circumference measured around the head, over the glabella and opisthocranion

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Used Instrument

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Quality recording paper.

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Definition of anthropological points (landmarks) Because the body can assume a variety of postures, anthropometric description is always in reference to the anatomical position. This is where the subject is oriented to a standing position with head and eyes directed forward, upper limbs hanging by the sides with the palms forward, thumbs pointing away from the sides with fingers pointing directly downward, and the feet together with the toes pointing directly forward.

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HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE The maximum circumference of the head with the tape passing over the glabella and opisthocranion

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MAXIMUM HEAD LENGTH The direct distance between the glabella and opisthocranion

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MAXIMUM HEAD WIDTH The direct distance between both euryon points

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WIDTH OF THE FACE - BIZYGION DISTANCE The direct distance between both zygion points

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MORPHOLOGICAL HEIGHT OF THE FACE The direct distance between the nasion and the gnathion

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SELECTED POINTS ON THE BODY AKROMIALE (a) - the most lateral point on the acromion process of scapula when the subject is standing erect with shoulders relaxed, arms hanging freely by the sides of the body DAKTYLION (da) -the most distal point of the 3rd finger when the subject is standing erect, the arm is hanging and the fingers are stretched downward ILIOCRISTALE (ic) - the most laterally projecting point of the crest of the ilium ILIOSPINALE ANTERIUS (is) - the most prominent point of the anterior superior spine of the ilium

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SELECTED POINTS ON THE BODY MESOSTERNALE (mst) -the point on the front side of the chest lying on the midline in the centre of the sternum where the 4th rib is attached THELION (th) - the midpoint of the nipple VERTEX (v) - the most superior point on the skull, in the midsagittal plane, when the head is held in the Frankfurt plane

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SELECTED BODY DIMENSIONS OMPHALION (om) PTERNION (pte) AKROPODION (ap) METATARSALE TIBIALE (mt. t.) FIBULARE (mt. f.)

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BODY HEIGHT The vertical distance between the vertex and the platform The subject stands erect on a flat surface, feet together, head is held in the Frankfurt plane, the arms hang freely along the sides. The back, buttocks and heels are in contact with a vertical wall

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HEIGHT SITTING The vertical distance from the vertex to a horizontal desk on which subject is seated.

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HEIGHT OF ACROMIALE POINT The vertical distance of the acromiale from the ground when the subject is standing erect with relaxed shoulders, arms hanging loose at the sides.

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HEIGHT OF DACTYLION POINT The vertical distance of the dactylion from the ground when the subject is standing erect. The shoulders are at the same position as above, the arm straight throughout the measurement and the fingers stretched downward.

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HEIGHT OF ILIOSPINALE ANTERIUS POINT The vertical distance of the most prominent point of the anterior superior spine of the ilium from the ground

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BIACROMIAL WIDTH The distance between the most lateral points on the acromion processes measured from the front. The subject stands erect, shoulders relaxed, arms hanging loosely at the sides.

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BIILIOCRISTAL WIDTH The distance between the most lateral points on the superior border of the iliac crest measured from the front

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BIEPICONDYLAR WIDTH OF HUMERUS The direct distance between medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus when the subject is seated and the arm is raised forward to the horizontal and the forearm is flexed to a right angle at the elbow.

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BIEPICONDYLAR WIDTH OF FEMUR The direct distance between medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur when the subject is seated and the leg is flexed at the knee to form a right angle with the thigh.

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FOOT LENGTH The distance between pternion and akropodion on the standing subject. The body weight is spread to both legs equally.

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FOOT WIDTH the maximum direct distance between metatarsale tibiale and metatarsale fibulare points on the standing subject. The body weight is spread to both legs equally.

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CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE ACROSS THELION / MESOSTERNALE The circumference measured closely above the nipples, in adolescent girls at the level of the mesosternale. The chest is in a ”normal” position, neither during inhalation nor exhalation. The metric tape should be pressed lightly against the body following a line under inferior angles of the shoulder-blade.

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ABDOMINAL CIRCUMFERENCE The perimeter at the level of the navel (omphalion) measured horizontally; the subject stands erect with his abdomen relaxed.

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GLUTEAL THIGH CIRCUMFERENCE the perimeter of the thigh just below the gluteal furrow, tape is positioning perpendicularly to the limb´s lengthwise axis. The subject stands with his feet slightly apart and his weight evenly distributed on both feet.

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MEDIUM THIGH CIRCUMFERENCE The perimeter of the thigh in the middle of the distance between the trochanterion point and the lateral epicondylus of femur perpendicular to the leg´s lengthwise axis; the subject stands erect, legs slightly apart, weight equally distributed on both feet.

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CALF CIRCUMFERENCE MAXIMAL Maximum calf circumference measured across the greatest bulge of the gastrocnemius muscle; the subject position is the same as for thigh´s circumferences.

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ARM CIRCUMFERENCE RELAXED The perimeter in the middle of the distance between the acromiale point and the elbow´s tip (olecranon ulnae) on the free hanging arm

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Skinfolds thicknessess The most often used data from athropometric measurement is that obtained from skinfolds. It has been very popular to use the sum of varying numbers of skinfolds to calculate percentage body fat. Any combination of skinfolds can be used, but if a realistic assessment of subcutaneous fat is to be gained, sites must be chosen from both the upper and lower body. The most commonly used combination features six sites – triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf. Mostly used types of caliper are Best and Harpenden (this type are much variations).

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BICEPS SKINFOLD The caliper is applied 1 cm distally from the left thumb and index finger raising a vertical fold at the marked mid- acromiale-radiale line on the anterior surface of the right arm

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TRICEPS SKINFOLD The caliper is applied 1 cm distally from the left thumb and index finger raising a vertical fold at the marked mid-acromiale-radiale line on the posterior surface of the right arm.

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SUBSCAPULAR SKINFOLD The caliper is applied 1 cm distally from the left thumb and index finger, raising a fold oblique to the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction running obliquely downwards in a lateral direction at an angle of about 45 from the horizontal along the natural fold.

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SUPRAILIAC SKINFOLD The caliper is applied 1 cm anteriorly from the left thumb and index finger raising a fold 3 cm up the border of the ilium and a line the spinale to the anterior axillary border. The fold follows the natural fold lines running medially downwards at a 45 angle from horizontal.

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BODY WEIGHING

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Our anthropometric examinations

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Matiegka´s Equations 90 years ago, the Czechoslovakian anthropologist Jindřich Matiegka proposed method for the anthropometric fractionation of body mass into four main components: skeletal mass fat mass muscle mass residual or vital organ/visceral mass (Matiegka, 1921).

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WHY TO USE Matiegka´s FORMULAS? 1.They are based on European populations. 2.We have proved their usefulness both theoretically and for practice. 3.The method is non-invasive, easy to use in the field, suitable for short-time examination of patients and relatively cheap in use. 4.Matiegka´s formulas are part of a special anthropological PC programme ANTROPO, which makes automatic processing of anthropometric data possible.

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Matiegka´s FORMULAS FOR ESTIMATION OF BOD COMPONENTS MATIEGKA’S FORMULAS W = O + D + M + R W - body weight in grams O - skeletal mass in grams D - mass of the skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue in grams M - muscles mass in grams R - residual mass in grams

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MASS OF THE SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE - D D = d x S x k 2 1 d 1 + d 2 + d 3 + d 4 + d 5 + d 6 d = --- x --------------------------------- 2 6 d - sum of skinfolds in centimetres d 1 - upper arm above biceps skinfold d 2 - anterior side of the forearm at maximum breadth skinfold d 3 - thigh above the quadriceps muscle halfway between the inguinal fold and the knee d 4 - calf (mediale) d 5 - thorax at the costal margin halfway between the nipples and the navel (chest 2) d 6 - on the abdomen in the upper third of distance between the navel and the superior anterior iliac spine S - body surface area in square centimetres (Dubois) k 2 – 0.13 Skinfolds thickness in centimetres

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RESIDUAL MASS - R b 1 + b 2 + b 3 b 4 R 1 = b x H x k 4 b = ----------------- + -------------- 6 2 R 2 = W – (O + D + M) R Matiegka = W x 0.206 R - Eligible: R 1 - residual calculated in grams R 2 - mass of the remainder in grams (residual supplemented) R Matiegka – residual calculated according to Matiegka (1921) H - body height k 4 - 0.34 b 1 - biacromial width b 2 - bicristal width b 3 - transverse diameter of the chest b 4 - sagittal diameter of the chest W - body weight in grams O - skeleton mass in grams D - mass of the skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue in grams M - muscles mass in gramsAll measurements are in centimetres

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SKELETAL MASS - O o 1 + o 2 + o 3 + o 4 O = o 2 x H x k 1 o = ---------------------- 4 o 1 – width of the distal humeral epiphysis o 2 – width of the wrist o 3 – width of the distal femoral epiphysis o 4 – width of the ankle H – body height k 1 – 1.2 All measurements are in centimetres

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MUSCLE MASS – M r 1 + r 2 + r 3 + r 4 M = r 2 x H x k 3 r = ----------------------- 4 r - representing the radii calculated from circumferences in centimetres Cr 1 – circumference of the relaxed arm in centimetres Cr 2 – maximum circumference of the forearm in centimetres Cr 3 – median circumference of the thigh in centimetres Cr 4 - maximum circumference of the calf in centimetres H – body height in centimetres k 3 – 6.5 The circumferences must be corrected for the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue + skin (fat) Formula for computing of radius (r x ) of circumferences (Cr x ) corrected for fat Cr x – 3.1416 x skinfold r x = --------------------------------------------- 2 x 3.1416

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References,where Matiegka’s equations were published: Bláha P. et al.: Anthropometric studies of Czech preschool children from 3 to 7 years. Praha, 1990. Drinkwater D.T. and Ross W.D.: Anthropometric Fractionation of Body Mass. In: Kinanthropometry II., pp.178–189.University Park Press,Baltimore 1980. Fetter at al.: Antropologie. Academia. Praha 1967. Matiegka J.: The testing of physical efficiency. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.. 4: 223-230, 1921. Pařízková J.: Body fat and physical fitness. Martinus Nijhof b.v. Medical Division. The Hague, 1977. Sportanthropologie: Fragestellungen, Methoden und Ergnebnisse am Beispiel der Luftisziplinen und des Skurrensports. Bernard Wolfram, Klaus Jung, Unter. Mitarb. von E. Ammann.G. Fischer, 1998, ISBN 3-437-25376-X

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Body Mass Indexes WEIGHT HEIGHT RATIO = W/X BODY MASS INDEX BMI = (W/X 2 ) 10 3 ROHRERŮV INDEX R = (W/X 3 ) 10 6

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BMI differentiated into two components: BODY FAT and LEAN BODY MASS W F LBM BMI = ------- + ------ + ----------- H 2 H 2 H 2 W – body weight in kg H – body height in meters F – body fat mass in kg LBM – lean body mass in kg

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The Heath-Carter somatotype methods A somatotype is a classification of physique based on the concept of shape, disregarding size. The pre-eminent system of somatotype classification is the Heath-Carter somatotype. This shows the relative dominance of Endomorphy (relative fatness), Mesomorphy (relative musculo-skeletal robustness) and Ectomorphy (relative linearity). Each component is identified in the sequence endomorphy-mesomorphy- ectomorphy and, when anthropometrically-derived, expressed to the nearest one-tenth rating, e.g. 1.4.-6.0-3.2, an ectomorphic mesomorph, or ecto-mesomorph. Ratings of 2 to 2.5 are considered low, 3 to 5 are moderate, 5.5 to 7 are high and 7.5 and above are very high (Carter, 1996). The derivation equations for each component are as follows.

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Endomorphy -0.7182 + 0.1451*∑SF – 0.00068*∑SF2 + 0.0000014*∑SF3 [where ∑SF = sum of triceps, subscapular and supraspinale skinfolds multiplied by (170.18/height in cms)] Mesomorphy 0.858*humerus breadth + 0.601*femur breadth + 0.188*corrected arm girth + 0.161*corrected calf girth – height*0.131 + 4.5

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Ectomorphy One of three equations is used depending on the value of the calculated Height Weight Ratio (HWR) of the subject. [HWR is height/body mass333]. If HWR is greater than, or equal to 40.75 then ectomorphy = 0.732*HWR – 28.58 If HWR is less than 40.75 and greater than 38.25 then ectomorphy = 0.463*HWR -17.63 If HWR is equal to or less than 38.25 then ectomorphy = 0.1

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Computer programme ANTROPO

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