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Professor Lester Krames Room: 3055 Phone: 828-3957 Office Hours: Wednesdays 3 to 5 and by appointment.

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Presentation on theme: "Professor Lester Krames Room: 3055 Phone: 828-3957 Office Hours: Wednesdays 3 to 5 and by appointment."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Professor Lester Krames Room: 3055 Phone: Office Hours: Wednesdays 3 to 5 and by appointment

3 Course details All information on WEB

4 PUMP Room Centre of activities for PSY100Y Room 1099 PAUSE Club

5 Laboratory 12 two hour laboratories over the academic year You should already be signed up for a particular laboratory time

6 Library Assignment Part of Laboratory Grade Librarians will be in class to explain searching techniques

7 Test dates

8 Grades

9 Experiments Actual Participation Substitute Experiments –www.erin.utoronto.ca/~w3psy100/experiments/expindex.htm

10 Textbooks Psychology 5th Edition (package) –by Bernstein, Clarke-Stewart, Penner, Roy, Wickens –3 chapters per test in the order in which they appear Sniffy the Virtual Rat Erindale Laboratory Manual

11 Common sense and the task of the scientist First task of science is to separate fact from fiction There exist a number of rules about behavior that may or may not be true what is important-- We act as if they are true.

12 Common sense Let's begin with a very simple question. The correct answer is the very first answer that pops into your head. WHAT IS THE MOON MADE OUT OF???? CHEESE??????? Psychology - the scientific study of behavior

13 Task of the scientist We learn these rules through socialization, from our earliest experiences. They are a part of the culture in which we live. It is not important if the rules are true only if we believe they are true:

14 Rules that are just made up What's for Breakfast? –Cornflakes –good for self control –vegetarians

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21 Physiological rules Knowing the underlying physiological rules can help us understand on the next slide stare at the black dot in the center of the flag what do you see when the flag disappears try blinking your eyes after the flag disappears

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24 Psychology as a Science Attempts to describe, predict, and explain thought and behavior. n Uses scientific method

25 Science vs. Common Sense Objective data collection Reliance on evidence Systematic observation Subjective data collection Ignores counterevidence Hit or miss observation

26 Science & Proof A deduction is proven if the general premise is true and the logic is valid. n An induction goes beyond the known data, and thus can never be proven. Science, then does not prove things, because all information about the outside observable world is inductive.

27 Science Terminology: n Advantages of science: Hypothesis - a possible way things could be Theory - an explanation for the way things are, usually supported by a lot of data. Scientific methods are deductive Science is more systematic, and less subject to human bias

28 Judging Theories Fit to the data n Quality of the data n Ability to predict n Ability to explain Belief in the theory is irrelevant to its quality.

29 Testing Hypotheses

30 Testing the Hypothesis Blind psychology professor, Raymond Rainville listened to live broadcasts of NFL games was able to identify the race of the players even though it was never mentioned. Football

31 Sometimes the rule is in the name term lunacy comes from lunar suggesting the moon can indeed affect behavior –The full moon makes people crazy –names express an implied rule hysterical sinister or gauche

32 Describing everyday conflicts Psychology's approach to rules how do we confirm or dis-confirm rules? Why do people do the things they do?

33 Why do people do the things they do? A baffling case in Queens New York – Nominal Error (names) –BYSTANDER APATHY – The laboratory study one subject alone help is available the greater the number of subjects the less likely help would be offered

34 By-stander apathy one subject alone not a selfish response smoke still gets in their eyes social inhibition of helping responses potential of getting help greater on a small back-country road than on the 401 or QEW

35 Who helps whom Subject at risk can begin to define variables –time pressure – characteristics of helpers and victims

36 Research methods Naturalistic Observation Laboratory Observation Case Studies Surveys Experiments Experiments of Nature

37 Naturalistic Observation Observe behavior in its natural setting, attempt to avoid influencing or controlling it Advantage: Good way to collect normative data Disadvantage: Must wait for the behavior to occur naturally

38 Laboratory Observation Observe behavior in a laboratory where extraneous variables can be controlled and specialized equipment can be used Advantage: Better control of outside factors. More precise equipment can be used Disadvantage: Surroundings may affect results

39 Case Studies Observe one or a very few subjects in great depth, usually over a long period of time Advantage: The only method appropriate for very unusual cases Disadvantage: Problems with generalizing the results

40 A longitudinal study from ages 4-7

41 A cross-sectional study from ages 4-7 Pros/Cons: Cross-sectional studies are generally quicker, but compare different people rather than determine changes within an individual

42 Surveys Collect data from groups of people using questionnaires or interviews. Data is useless unless sample is representative. Advantage: Can collect information such as attitudes and beliefs Disadvantage: Subjects may lie or mislead (kinsey)

43 Correlation The preceding methods are correlational. They can determine if X and Y go together, but not if X causes Y. 01 High Corr. Size Low HIGHER The Correlation Co-efficient

44 Correlation Cannot imply causation due to: Directionality problems Third Variables

45 Psychology as a Science If A and B are correlated: Possibility 1: A might cause B A B

46 Psychology as a Science If A and B are correlated: Possibility 2: B might cause A B A

47 Psychology as a Science If A and B are correlated: Possibility 3: A might influence B while B influences A in return. A B

48 Psychology as a Science Third Variables: Rather than A causing B or B causing A, third variable C causes A & B. A B C

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50 Control Experiment is actually asking a question is the answer we get the answer to the question we are asking –rat color vision –yawn theory

51 Predict and control beware of pickpocket predict behavior reinforcement to control behavior Premak versus. mother's rule

52 Milgram Experiment Study of obedience Authority figures

53 Domain of the Psychologist language problem surplus meaning behavior not exclusive domain of psychologists – Greek tragedies – Shakespeare – Freud – Transactional Analysis

54 Curiosity theme that runs through all of psychology characterizing psychologists observers all activities of all living organisms fair game

55 Limitations Using the mind to study the mind

56 Ethical Issues Informed Consent: Human subjects must be told of all foreseeable risks. Animals can't give informed consent, must be protected from unnecessary suffering. Deception: Some psychologists oppose all deception. Others tolerate deception as long as it poses no foreseeable risks and debriefing occurs.

57 Ethical Issues Risk: In psychology, the standards for acceptable risk must be very stringent, because potential benefits for the participating subject are very low Children: Young children may have difficulty giving informed consent, due to a desire to obey & please adults & a lack of understanding of possible risks

58 The study of Psychology Definition of Psychology – A) Science – that studies the B) behavior – C) of animals Goal – understanding the human mind

59 Behavior what is behavior? – How do we define behavior? Any observable action or reaction of an animal creates a problem--limits what we can study

60 Where do we direct our studies? Internal or External variables? – i.e., early Greek approach – Psychoanalytic

61 Historical approaches Five Schools of Psychology

62 STRUCTURALISM founded by Wilhelm Wundt, – opened what has since been regarded as the first lab of psychology, in Leipzig, Germany in – His approach to psychology was to disclose the structure of conscious experience using the tool of "experimental introspection,”

63 Wilhelm Wundt Founder of psychology as a discipline. Focused on conscious experience and its building blocks. Trained many early psychologists.

64 STRUCTURALISM "experimental introspection,” – a standardized kind of introspection that utilized laboratory equipment. –The idea that one could understand consciousness by simply studying one's own sensations.

65 STRUCTURALISM Wundt's greatest contribution was perhaps his influence in stimulating research on the issues of psychology. approach was later carried on by Edward Titchener in the United States

66 Schools of Psychology Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879) STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879)

67 Schools of Psychology Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience Method: Experimental introspection Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience Method: Experimental introspection STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879) STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879)

68 Schools of Psychology Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience Method: Experimental introspection Application: “Pure scientific research”: spurred development of psychological laboratories Other Psychologists: Edward Titchener Goal: To specify the structure of conscious experience Method: Experimental introspection Application: “Pure scientific research”: spurred development of psychological laboratories STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879) STRUCTURALISM Wilhelm Wundt (Germany, 1879)

69 FUNCTIONALISM Advocated laboratory research but, unlike Wundt, James believed that one could and should study areas of psychology other than sensations. Viewed behavior in terms of its adaptive value for the organism. Focused on the flow of consciousness rather than its structure.

70 FUNCTIONALISM Functionalism encouraged: – "applied" psychology, – child psychology, – the study of individual differences, – and the use of psychology ideas in business and education.

71 FUNCTIONALISM Later advocates of functionalism included – E. L. Thorndike, – John Dewey, – James McKeen Cattell. As structuralism faded in popularity, so too did functionalism, its primary conceptual rival.

72 Schools of Psychology FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment

73 Schools of Psychology FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior

74 Schools of Psychology FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) FUNCTIONALISM William James (United States, 1890s) Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior Application: Child Psychology, educational and industrial psychology, study of individual differences Other Psychologists: James McKeen Cattell, John Dewey, E.L. Thorndike Goal: To study how the mind works to allow an organism to adapt to its environment Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior Application: Child Psychology, educational and industrial psychology, study of individual differences

75 BEHAVIORISM founded in the 1910s by John B. Watson, absorbed some of the ideas of functionalism, went even further to say that observable behavior was the only appropriate subject matter for psychology.

76 John Watson Founder of Behaviorism. Confined psychology to the study of observable stimuli & behavior.

77 BEHAVIORISM This school insisted the only data relevant to psychology were: –directly observable phenomena, behaviors that organisms actually perform – and the environmental stimuli surrounding such behaviors. S-R Psychology (This is the rule)

78 BEHAVIORISM Watson conceptualized all behavior as learned from one's interactions with the environment, – i.e., thought nothing more than tiny, inaudible contractions of the muscles of speech.

79 BEHAVIORISM B. F. Skinner, –a forceful champion of Watson's ideas in the 1940s and 1950s, claimed that while mental processes may exist in organisms, their study was unnecessary and even counterproductive to explain and understand behavior

80 Schools of Psychology BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning

81 Schools of Psychology BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning Method: Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning Method: Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses

82 Schools of Psychology BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) BEHAVIORISM John B. Watson (United States, 1910s) Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning Method: Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses Application: Learning theory, environmental emphasis, development of language to make psychological information more explicit and communicable Other Psychologists: B.F. Skinner Goal: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning Method: Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses Application: Learning theory, environmental emphasis, development of language to make psychological information more explicit and communicable

83 GESTALT began in the 1910s in Germany, although its three principal founders, – Max Wertheimer, – Kurt Koffka, – Wolfgang Kohler, eventually emigrated to the United States.

84 GESTALT Gestalt is a German word meaning "form" or "organization."

85 This approach stressed that breaking up conscious experience into its elemental sensations destroyed an understanding of the whole or totality of consciousness--the gestalt of consciousness. Development of perception –what’s up –what’s far

86 GESTALT The theme of this approach was captured by the famous saying, "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Gestalt principles are important in understanding the principles of perception. –Grouping –Proximity –Similarity

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91 BOOM! SQUISH!

92 Gestalt Movement

93 Schools of Psychology GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

94 Schools of Psychology GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Method: Phenomenology (e.g., phi phenomenon) Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Method: Phenomenology (e.g., phi phenomenon)

95 Schools of Psychology GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Max Wertheimer (Germany, 1910s) Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Method: Phenomenology (e.g., phi phenomenon) Application: Perception: some groundwork for cognitive psychology Other Psychologists: Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Goal: To describe organization of mental processes. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Method: Phenomenology (e.g., phi phenomenon) Application: Perception: some groundwork for cognitive psychology

96 PSYCHOANALYSIS Psychoanalysis was the term Sigmund Freud – used for his theory of personality, –and for his method of treating psychological disorders. Freud developed his ideas in the late 1800s in Austria, and only much later did his ideas gain popularity in the United States.

97 Sigmund Freud Founded psychoanalysis, focused on unconscious thoughts in determining behavior.

98 PSYCHOANALYSIS Freud believed that the most important influences on behavior were conflicts and struggles that occur within each person's mind, but which are largely beneath a person's conscious awareness--they were unconscious.

99 PSYCHOANALYSIS Freud maintained that these unconscious activities are active and complex processes, much like those of consciousness. –He emphasized the importance of childhood in setting up these unconscious conflicts, which he felt would shape the basic personality that one takes into adult life.

100 Psychoanalysis Structuralism methodology –find the structure through the past –find the structure through the unconscious

101 Erik Erikson PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE "VIRTUE" Trust/Mistrust Hope Autonomy/Shame Willpower Initiative/ Purpose Industry/Inferiority Competence Identity/Role Confusion Fidelity Intimacy/Isolation Love Generativity/Stagnation Care Integrity/Despair Wisdom

102 Alfred Adler Man know much more than he understands. The feeling of inferiority rules the mental life and can be clearly recognized in the sense of incompleteness and unfulfillment, and in the uninterrupted struggle both of individuals and humanity.

103 Adler The chief danger in life is that you may take too many precautions. There is no such thing as talent. There is pressure. It is always easier to fight for one's principles than to live up to them.

104 Schools of Psychology PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness

105 Schools of Psychology PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness Method: Free association under the guidance of analyst; clinical insight Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness Method: Free association under the guidance of analyst; clinical insight

106 Schools of Psychology PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (Germany, early 1900s) Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness Method: Free association under the guidance of analyst; clinical insight Application: Development of psychopathology, emphasis on childhood as important in later personality Other Psychologists: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Goal: To explain personality and behavior and develop techniques for mental illness Method: Free association under the guidance of analyst; clinical insight Application: Development of psychopathology, emphasis on childhood as important in later personality

107 Contemporary approaches HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY also began in the 1960s, stems from the work of –Maslow needs hierarchy Physiological Safety Social Ego Self-fulfillment

108 Humanistic Psychology

109 Carl Rogers. Psychotherapeutic concepts such as – "empathy,” –“reflection” –"unconditional positive regard," –and "self-actualization" that emphasize the transformative impact of "empathy" and "mirroring" are really not that far from the humanistic notions about the ingredients necessary for self-actualization.

110 Humanistic Psychology This approach emphasizes the inherent goodness and mental healthiness of people and the concept of free will Rogers' developed the concept of "client-centered" therapy, which emphasized non-judgmental guidance rather than diagnosis and treatment.

111 The Humanists Considered each human unique, argued people strive for "self- actualization." Generally not empirically testable.

112 Contemporary Trends HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Abraham Maslow (United States, 1960s) HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Abraham Maslow (United States, 1960s) Other Psychologists: Carl Rogers Goal: To ensure mental healthiness of individuals and develop therapeutic techniques Other Psychologists: Carl Rogers Goal: To ensure mental healthiness of individuals and develop therapeutic techniques

113 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Information-processing approach, stressing the components of thought Cognitive Psychology is concerned with advances in the study of memory, language processing, perception, problem solving, and thinking.

114 Cognitive Psychology perception, memory, decision making began to flourish in the 1960s and is a dominant approach in American psychology today.

115 Contemporary Trends COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY William James (United States, 1890s) COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY William James (United States, 1890s) Goal: To explore the mental processes involved in judgment, decision making, and other aspects of complex thought

116 Modern Views Modern psychologists are eclectic -- approach problems from multiple perspectives. Believe behaviors have multiple causes.

117 Specialties

118 Employment


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