Binary Form (AB) Two-part form - music in two sections: A then B. These sections may be repeated.
Ternary Form (ABA) National 4 re-cap Three-part form – Music in three sections: section A, then B, then back to A.
Rondo (ABACADA…) A B A C A….. A form where the first section (A) keeps returning, in between different sections – B, C etc.
Coda A passage at the end of a piece of music which rounds it off effectively. Haydn - Surprise Symphony Hall of the Mountain King
Strophic A song which has the same music repeated for verses/choruses, therefore the music will be heard repeating throughout the song. Beach Boys - I Get Around Schubert - Das Wadern Elgar - In Haven
Modulation A change of key. Beyonce - Love on Top Westlife - You Raise Me Up Carmen – Habanera Beethoven Symphony no.5
Ground Bass A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied. Bach - Passacaglia in C minor Pachelbel Canon in D Purcell - When I am Laid on Earth (starts 1.30s)
Classical This term refers to music composed during the period 1750 to 1810 approximately. This was the era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Mozart - Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Beethoven - Für Elise Haydn - Emperor String Quartet Mozart - Symphony no.40 Beethoven - Symphony no.5 Mozart Violin Concerto No 5 A major Haydn Suprise Symphony
Alberti Bass Broken chords played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody. Classical composers such as Haydn and Mozart used this technique extensively in their piano music. The chord is played in the order: low - high - middle - high. Mozart Sonata in C Mozart Piano Concerto no.26 Beethoven Pathetique Sonata ACB CEDFG
Symphony A large work for orchestra usually in four movements. In the Classical period the movements were normally fast, slow, minuet and trio, fast. Beethoven Symphony no.5 Haydn Symphony 'Clock‘ Brahms Symphony no.4 Tchaikovsky Symphony no.4 Mahler Symphony no.5
Atonal Atonal music has no feeling of key, major or minor. It is very dissonant, and it will lack a 'nice' melody and accompaniment. Atonal music is a feature of some 20th-century music. Schoenberg - 6 Little Pieces for Orchestra
Atonal Atonal II
Messian Quartet for the end of time Berg Lyric Suite Boulez - The Hammer Without a Master
Chromatic Scale/Tones and Semitones
Cluster A term used to describe a group of notes, which clash, played together Piano Clusters Schoenberg - A Survivor from Warsaw
Five Orchestral Pieces Five Orchestral Pieces Five Orchestral Pieces is an atonal Expressionist piece. It was completed in The first performance took place in London in Schoenberg described it as "a vivid, uninterrupted succession of colours and moods". Peripetie is the fourth movement. Peripetie can be translated as 'a sudden change of fortune'.
Peripetie This is the fourth movement from Schoenberg’s 5 Orchestral Pieces. It is a very intense, restless, dramatic work which frequently shifts in orchestration, speed and mood. The movement opens with seven motifs (short musical ideas) played loudly (forte), one after the other. We are going to look at the first three of these motifs. Each motif has its own mood and character.
Motif A Motif A Motif A opens the movement. It is a short fanfare played by three clarinets, a bass clarinet and three bassoons. Notice the use of triplets and the six different pitches. The dynamic is forte (loud) with a crescendo. Motif A is immediately followed by a short chromatic scale played by three muted trumpets and four trombones. Trombones 1 and 2 play a glissando (a slide).
Motif B Motif B Next comes Motif B for three flutes and piccolo, three oboes and cor anglais, plus three clarinets in B flat and one in D (a very unusual clarinet). Notice all the accidentals creating the dissonant chord at the end of the motif.
Motif C Motif C Next we hear the powerful sound of six horns playing motif C, another angular line. Again the motif is in triplets but this time triplet quavers. Notice the use of the dissonant interval of a 7th.
Cross Rhythms Term used to describe the effect of two notes being played against three (eg in piano music it might be groups of two quavers in the right hand and groups of triplets in the left). The term is also used to describe the effect that occurs when the accents in a piece of music are different from those suggested by the time signature (eg the division of 4/4 time into quavers).
Cross Rhythms West Side Story – America Debussy - Arabesque No. 1 Blue Rondo A La Turk - Dave Brubeck Polyrhythms
Impressionism A term borrowed from painting in which brief musical ideas merge and change to create a rather blurred, hazy and vague outline. Debussy was an important composer of this style. This painting by Monet is hazy and blurred – creating an 'impression' rather than showing clear lines. Impressionist music is similar in that it doesn’t have clearly defined strong melody lines, but aims to create atmosphere.
Impressionism Whole-tone scales were often a feature of this style of music. Debussy - La MerDebussy - La Mer Ravel - Daybreak (Daphnis et Chloé)Ravel - Daybreak (Daphnis et Chloé) Debussy – ReverieDebussy – Reverie Ravel: Gaspard de la nuitRavel: Gaspard de la nuit
Whole Tone Scale A scale containing no semitones but built entirely on whole tones. Debussy used the whole-tone scale in some of his pieces which were influenced by Impressionism. A whole- tone scale on C is shown below.
Minimalist A development in the second half of the 20th century based on simple rhythmic and melodic figures which are constantly repeated with very slight changes each time. Anna’s Light Zip Paintings
So What is Minimalism...apart from a long word?! Less is more Small amount of music Repetition - ostinato Trance like - hypnotic Looping of different motifs and patters Very simple yet sounds complicated Lot of music with little changes Building of layers diatonic No dynamics/te mpo
The Technological Part Composers can use software like Cubase/Gargeband to help them compose minimalist music. Its very easy to make minimalist music on Garageband – as you can copy and paste tracks, so that it is repetitive – a very important feature of Minimalism!
Minimalism from around the World WESTEREN AFRICA – cross rhythms - drumming In Indonesian gamelan, the pieces are very spiritual and hypnotic – these ideas are also used in minimalist music. Gamelan also uses lots of layering of different percussion instruments – it is very repetitive, and each instrument is layered on top of each other. In India, the tala (percussion) rhythm is always repeated, or looped. We use this a lot in minimalist music.
Minimalism Steve Reich - Music for 18 Musicians Steve Reich - Six Marimbas John Adams - The Chairman Dance Philip Glass – Koyaanisqatsi Philip Glass - Two Pages Mike Oldfield - Tubular bells
Reverb An electronic effect which can give the impression of different hall acoustics. For example, reverb can make a piece of music sound as if the performance is taking place in a cathedral. Glasvegas - Ice Cream Van Pink Orange Red Pink Floyd - Sorrow
Pitch Bend Changing the pitch of a note, for example by pushing a guitar string upwards. Pitch Bend Tutorial Smoke On The Water - Guitar Solo - Slow & Close Up Iron Maiden - Fear Of The Dark Metallica - Enter Sandman Mamma I'm Coming Home – Ozzy AC/DC Back in Black
Walking Bass A bass line (low notes) often featured in a variety of jazz styles. It goes for a walk, up and down a pattern of notes, and is often played on a double bass. Ray Charles - Mess Around Liberace Boogie Woogie Miles Davis Quintet – Oleo
Gospel Music written with religious lyrics, often in praise or thanksgiving to God. Gospel has its origins in African-American culture. Sister Act 2 (Finale) Lauryn Hill - Joyful Joyful Shackles 'Praise You' (Mary Mary) - ACM Gospel Choir Soweto Gospel Choir - Amazing Grace Oh Happy Day
Celtic Rock A style of music that mixes Celtic folk music and rock together Runrig - Live in Loch Lomond - Loch Lomond Highlander Celtic Rock Band - Bung Knee Jigs Runrig. Mod for Rockers. Cnoc Na Feille Fferyllt
Indian Music Indian Music Music from India which uses instruments such as the sitar and tabla. Sitar: Sitar: A plucked, stringed instrument from India. It's basically an Indian guitar – easy to remember because sitar rhymes with guitar. Tabla: Tabla: Indian drums often used to accompany the sitar.
Other associated concepts at National 5
Homophonic (opening) Homophonic (opening) Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts play a similar rhythm at the same time. See how the parts all have the same rhythm here.
Contrapuntal Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest; similar in meaning to polyphonic. Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance, which weave independently of each other. Polyphonic is similar in meaning to contrapuntal. Polyphonic
Counter melody A melody played against the main melody. Carmen - En'tracte to Act III Albinonni - Adagio in G minor Rachmaninov Piano Concerto no.2 (mov.2 at 10minutes) Malcolm Arnold - Scottish Dance no.3
Inverted Pedal A note which is held on or repeated continuously at a high pitch. Opposite in pitch to pedal. Borodin In the Steppes of Central Asia Tam o' Shanter (+ pedal)
Contrary Motion Contrary Motion Two parts move in opposite directions, eg as one part ascends the other part descends. Philip Glass - Music in Contrary Motion Chopin "Chanson de l'adieu" s
National 5 – Musical Periods and Styles Quiz National 5 – Musical Periods and Styles Quiz