3Binary Form (AB)Two-part form - music in two sections: A then B. These sections may be repeated.
4Ternary Form (ABA) National 4 re-cap Three-part form – Music in three sections: section A, then B, then back to A.
5Rondo (ABACADA…)A B A C A….. A form where the first section (A) keeps returning, in between different sections – B, C etc.
6CodaA passage at the end of a piece of music which rounds it off effectively.Haydn - Surprise SymphonyHall of the Mountain King
7StrophicA song which has the same music repeated for verses/choruses, therefore the music will be heard repeating throughout the song.Beach Boys - I Get AroundSchubert - Das WadernElgar - In Haven
8Modulation A change of key. Beyonce - Love on Top Westlife - You Raise Me UpCarmen – HabaneraBeethoven Symphony no.5
9Ground BassA theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied.Bach - Passacaglia in C minorPachelbel Canon in DPurcell - When I am Laid on Earth (starts 1.30s)
10ClassicalThis term refers to music composed during the period 1750 to 1810 approximately.This was the era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.Mozart - Eine Kleine NachtmusikBeethoven - Für EliseHaydn - Emperor String QuartetMozart - Symphony no.40Beethoven - Symphony no.5Mozart Violin Concerto No 5 A majorHaydn Suprise Symphony
11Alberti BassBroken chords played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody.Classical composers such as Haydn and Mozart used this technique extensively in their piano music. The chord is played in the order: low - high - middle - high.Mozart Sonata in CMozart Piano Concerto no.26Beethoven Pathetique SonataACBEDFG
12Symphony A large work for orchestra usually in four movements. In the Classical period the movements were normally fast, slow, minuet and trio, fast.Beethoven Symphony no.5Haydn Symphony 'Clock‘Brahms Symphony no.4Tchaikovsky Symphony no.4Mahler Symphony no.5
13AtonalAtonal music has no feeling of key, major or minor. It is very dissonant, and it will lack a 'nice' melody and accompaniment. Atonal music is a feature of some 20th-century music.Schoenberg - 6 Little Pieces for Orchestra
18ClusterA term used to describe a group of notes, which clash, played togetherPiano ClustersSchoenberg - A Survivor from Warsaw
19Five Orchestral Pieces Five Orchestral Pieces is an atonal Expressionist piece. It was completed in The first performance took place in London in 1912.Schoenberg described it as "a vivid, uninterrupted succession of colours and moods". Peripetie is the fourth movement.Peripetie can be translated as 'a sudden change of fortune'.
20PeripetieThis is the fourth movement from Schoenberg’s 5 Orchestral Pieces. It is a very intense, restless, dramatic work which frequently shifts in orchestration, speed and mood. The movement opens with seven motifs (short musical ideas) played loudly (forte), one after the other. We are going to look at the first three of these motifs. Each motif has its own mood and character.
21Motif AMotif A opens the movement. It is a short fanfare played by three clarinets, a bass clarinetand three bassoons. Notice the use of triplets and the six different pitches.The dynamic is forte (loud) with a crescendo. Motif A is immediately followed by a shortchromatic scale played by three muted trumpets and four trombones. Trombones 1 and 2play a glissando (a slide).
22Motif BNext comes Motif B for three flutes and piccolo, three oboes andcor anglais, plus three clarinets in B flat and one in D (a very unusualclarinet). Notice all the accidentals creating the dissonant chord atthe end of the motif.
23Motif CNext we hear the powerful sound of six horns playing motif C, anotherangular line. Again the motif is in triplets but this time triplet quavers.Notice the use of the dissonant interval of a 7th.
24Cross RhythmsTerm used to describe the effect of two notes being played against three (eg in piano music it might be groups of two quavers in the right hand and groups of triplets in the left).The term is also used to describe the effect that occurs when the accents in a piece of music are different from those suggested by the time signature (eg the division of 4/4 time into quavers).
25Cross Rhythms West Side Story – America Debussy - Arabesque No. 1 Blue Rondo A La Turk - Dave BrubeckPolyrhythms
26ImpressionismA term borrowed from painting in which brief musical ideas merge and change to create a rather blurred, hazy and vague outline. Debussy was an important composer of this style.This painting by Monet is hazy and blurred – creating an 'impression' rather than showing clear lines. Impressionist music is similar in that it doesn’t have clearly defined strong melody lines, but aims to create atmosphere.
27ImpressionismWhole-tone scales were often a feature of this style of music.Debussy - La Mer Ravel - Daybreak (Daphnis et Chloé)Debussy – Reverie Ravel: Gaspard de la nuit
28Whole Tone ScaleA scale containing no semitones but built entirely on whole tones. Debussy used the whole-tone scale in some of his pieces which were influenced by Impressionism. A whole-tone scale on C is shown below.
29MinimalistA development in the second half of the 20th century based on simple rhythmic and melodic figures which are constantly repeated with very slight changes each time.Anna’s LightZip Paintings
31So What is Minimalism...apart from a long word?! Less is moreSmall amount of musicVery simple yet sounds complicatedRepetition - ostinatodiatonicSo What is Minimalism...apart from a long word?!No dynamics/tempoBuilding of layersTrance like - hypnoticLooping of different motifs and pattersLot of music with little changes
32The Technological Part Composers can use software like Cubase/Gargeband to help them compose minimalist music.Its very easy to make minimalist music on Garageband – as you can copy and paste tracks, so that it is repetitive – a very important feature of Minimalism!
33Minimalism from around the World In Indonesian gamelan, the pieces are very spiritual and hypnotic – these ideas are also used in minimalist music.Gamelan also uses lots of layering of different percussion instruments – it is very repetitive, and each instrument is layered on top of each other.WESTEREN AFRICA – cross rhythms - drummingIn India, the tala(percussion) rhythm isalways repeated, or looped.We use this a lot inminimalist music.
34MinimalismSteve Reich - Music for 18 Musicians Steve Reich - Six Marimbas John Adams - The Chairman Dance Philip Glass – Koyaanisqatsi Philip Glass - Two Pages Mike Oldfield - Tubular bells
35ReverbAn electronic effect which can give the impression of different hall acoustics. For example, reverb can make a piece of music sound as if the performance is taking place in a cathedral.Glasvegas - Ice Cream VanPink Orange RedPink Floyd - Sorrow
36Pitch BendChanging the pitch of a note, for example by pushing a guitar string upwards.Pitch Bend TutorialSmoke On The Water - Guitar Solo - Slow & Close UpIron Maiden - Fear Of The DarkMetallica - Enter SandmanMamma I'm Coming Home – OzzyAC/DC Back in Black
37Walking BassA bass line (low notes) often featured in a variety of jazz styles. It goes for a walk, up and down a pattern of notes, and is often played on a double bass.Ray Charles - Mess AroundLiberace Boogie WoogieMiles Davis Quintet – Oleo
38GospelMusic written with religious lyrics, often in praise or thanksgiving to God. Gospel has its origins in African-American culture.Sister Act 2 (Finale) Lauryn Hill - Joyful JoyfulShackles 'Praise You' (Mary Mary) - ACM Gospel ChoirSoweto Gospel Choir - Amazing GraceOh Happy Day
39Celtic RockA style of music that mixes Celtic folk music and rock togetherRunrig - Live in Loch Lomond - Loch LomondHighlander Celtic Rock Band - Bung Knee JigsRunrig. Mod for Rockers. Cnoc Na FeilleFferyllt
40Indian MusicMusic from India which uses instruments such as the sitar and tabla.Sitar: A plucked, stringed instrument from India. It's basically an Indian guitar – easy to remember because sitar rhymes with guitar.Tabla: Indian drums oftenused to accompany the sitar.
42Homophonic (opening)Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts play a similar rhythm at the same time.See how the parts all have the same rhythm here.
43Contrapuntal Polyphonic Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest; similar in meaning to polyphonic.Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance, which weave independently of each other. Polyphonic is similar in meaning to contrapuntal.Polyphonic
44Counter melody A melody played against the main melody. Carmen - En'tracte to Act IIIAlbinonni - Adagio in G minorRachmaninov Piano Concerto no.2 (mov.2 at 10minutes)Malcolm Arnold - Scottish Dance no.3
45Inverted PedalA note which is held on or repeated continuously at a high pitch. Opposite in pitch to pedal.Borodin In the Steppes of Central AsiaTam o' Shanter (+ pedal)
46Contrary MotionTwo parts move in opposite directions, eg as one part ascends the other part descends.Philip Glass - Music in Contrary MotionChopin "Chanson de l'adieu" s