The Symphony The symphony is a large piece for Orchestra.
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Presentation on theme: "The Symphony The symphony is a large piece for Orchestra."— Presentation transcript:
The Symphony The symphony is a large piece for Orchestra
The Symphony Symphonies are divided into 4 Movements Each Movement: Is like a separate piece of musicIs like a separate piece of music Has a beginning middle and endHas a beginning middle and end Starts and ends in the same keyStarts and ends in the same key Is marked at a certain tempoIs marked at a certain tempo
The Symphony The usual order of the movements is: 1.Fast (Allegro) 2.Slow (Andante) 3.Fast (Minuet or Scherzo) 4.Fast – the exciting finale
The Symphony a sonata for Orchestra.a sonata for Orchestra. developed +made important by Haydn – wrote 104developed +made important by Haydn – wrote 104 Mozart wrote 41.Mozart wrote 41. By end of Classical period symphonies c 40 minutes longBy end of Classical period symphonies c 40 minutes long subsequently considered to be major undertakings, substantial works of musical art.subsequently considered to be major undertakings, substantial works of musical art. “symphonic” = something on a creatively large scale.“symphonic” = something on a creatively large scale.
The Symphony The orchestra of the Classical period had become standardisedThe orchestra of the Classical period had become standardised Woodwind:Woodwind: 2 flutes2 flutes 2 oboes2 oboes 2 clarinets ( a new instrument introduced by Mozart)2 clarinets ( a new instrument introduced by Mozart) 2 Bassoons2 Bassoons Brass:Brass: 2 or 4 French horns2 or 4 French horns trumpets - used sparingly at the loudest moments of the first and last movementstrumpets - used sparingly at the loudest moments of the first and last movements Strings:Strings: violins I and II, Violas, Cellos and double basses. Several on each part, just like the string orchestra.violins I and II, Violas, Cellos and double basses. Several on each part, just like the string orchestra. PercussionPercussion Usually just timpaniUsually just timpani
The Symphony New concepts discussed on the DVD Contrary motionContrary motion –Harmony parts moving in opposite directions Sonata formSonata form –Usually used for first movements –Exposition: 2 themes in two keys are introduced –Development Themes are broken up and played by different sections in different keys –Recapitulation: themes return in original form but both in home key
The Symphony MOZART SYMPHONY NO 40 in G minor Towards the end of his life, Mozart's music becomes more expressive and dramatic, anticipating the Romantic period Written in the Summer of 1788, 2 years before his death his wife was ill and his daughter Theresia had recently died There are 4 movements as before: –Allegro –Andante –Minuet and trio –Finale
Symphony The Symphony First Movement – uses a simple motif as a building block for the whole movement which features a semitone (chromatic)
Classical Concerto 3 movements: –Allegro, ending with a cadenza- a solo section for the solo instrument, showing off the players skills. –Slow Movement –Fast finale usually in Rondo Form: Rondo Form: The main theme keeps returning or “coming round” again Rondo form is used in symphony and sonata movements too.
Famous Concerti- Classical Mozart Piano Concerto in C Mozart Clarinet concerto Haydn trumpet concerto Mozart Horn Concerto
Beethoven’s 9 th Symphony Beethoven’s Symphonies were very influential: He invented the scherzo He made Symphonies serious compositions His 5th symphony is also very famous: His 6 th symphony was the first to tell a story The Pastorale had 5 movements each one musically describing a scene from the countryside
Beethoven’s 9 th Symphony Beethoven’s Ninth was unusual in several ways: He placed the scherzo secondHe placed the scherzo second The movements are all linked more obviouslyThe movements are all linked more obviously The last movement is Choral, containing the famous tune Ode To JoyThe last movement is Choral, containing the famous tune Ode To Joy
Beethoven’s 9 th Symphony The order of Movements: FastFast ScherzoScherzo SlowSlow Choral finale Ode To JoyChoral finale Ode To Joy
Dvorak’s 9 th Symphony Written in 1892 during a visit to the USA Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) A mixture of nostalgic Czech style melodies and some Native American Indian flavoured music
Dvorak’s 9 th Symphony Order of movements: Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) Scherzo Allegro Largo Finale Like Beethoven, in this Symphony Dvorak uses the some of the same tunes (themes) in different movements
Dvorak’s 9 th Symphony Largo Played by a brass band, the main theme from the Largo was used for the Hovis advertisements in the early 1970s The instrument playing the famous theme is the cor anglais A relative of the oboe but sounding a bit lower
The notes are removed from certain bars You need to write them back in, after hearing the music Usually the missing notes are a repetition of something already played So, you need to recognise which bit of the printed music is being played again
Famous Concerti- Romantic Beethoven: Emperor Piano Concerto Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Rachmaninov Piano Concerto No 2 Rachmaninov Paganini variations
Romantic piano music Piano was a very important instrument in the Romantic period Used for solo pieces, Sonatas and “miniatures” Used for accompaniment of all other solo instruments and voice Concepts associated with piano –Speed change: Accelerando –making music speed up Ritardando/Rallentando/Ritenuto – slowing down gradually Rubato – changing tempo (speed) for expressive effect
Concepts check SymphonySymphony –Large, 4 movement work for orchestra ChromaticChromatic –Semitone scale Contrary motionContrary motion –2 melodies going in opposite directions Minuet and trioMinuet and trio –3 rd movement of classical symphony-ternary form 3 beats to the bar, contrasting “B” section RondoRondo –ABACAD etc (scooby sandwich) Programme musicProgramme music –Music which tells a story Modulation to Relative minorModulation to Relative minor –Change of key to same key as chord 6 ScherzoScherzo –Compound time, faster replacement of Minuet in the symphony in the Romantic period.