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14 Image Display © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the appropriate use of still photos.

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Presentation on theme: "14 Image Display © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the appropriate use of still photos."— Presentation transcript:

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2 14 Image Display

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain the appropriate use of still photos in a video production. Understand how fps affects the television image. Recall the guidelines for creating text to display on a television screen. Summarize the application of aspect ratio in creating the television image. Explain how contrast ratio affects television graphics. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Graphics Also known as visuals, any images created on paper or canvas with ink or paint or any other medium used by artist Artwork, paintings Any electronic text Charts, titles, graphs, sports scores and statistics

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Copyright Graphics are copyrighted by creator If you did not take picture of image, you must obtain permission to use it If you did not create graphic, you must obtain permission to use it

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Still Photos Excessive use will make program a slide show Instead, zoom in and “roam” camera over photo, providing motion and interest to shot Use horizontally-oriented photos rather than vertically-oriented photos Avoid glossy prints to prevent reflections into lens

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Still Photos (Cont.) Digital images can be manipulated by computer programs such as Photoshop Film photos and slides may be recorded by using: Telecine Film chain Film island

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Converting Motion Picture Film to Digital Format Film scanner Digital intermediate

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Frame Rate Issues Film operates at 24 fpsfps Each still frame flashed twice Black occurs between each flash Video operates at 30 fps Different frame rates may cause viewers to see black bar moving slowly vertically on screen

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Text Must be on screen long enough to be read twice Must be legible 8–15 feet from screen No more than five words per line No more than five lines per page Exception: If words are revealed word-by- word or line-by-line, maximums can be increased

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Fonts Many computer fonts are inappropriate for television Use simple and bold fonts Avoid flowery or fancy thin fonts Always check titles by viewing them on typical television screen before broadcasting them

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Aspect Ratio 4:3 and 16:9 Viewers still watching television on analog TVs via analog/digital convertor boxes have 4:3 screens Graphics must appear in their entirety on 4:3 screen In order to see all of motion picture on 4:3 screen, image must be letterboxed

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Letterbox

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Aspect Ratio (Cont.) 16:9—New standard for broadcast TV All new TVs are in 16:9 format All graphics made to fit on 4:3 screens will display properly on 16:9 screens

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Aspect Ratio (Cont.)

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Essential Area

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Character Generator (CG) Creates text for video Titles Credits Roll Crawl Types of CGs: stand-alone units, built-in to editors CG may refer to two things: Character generator Computer generated (as in special effects)

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Contrast Ratio Luminance vs. darkness of shotLuminance Contrast ratio will be limited to 40:1 as long as some viewers are still using analog TVs

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Contrast Ratio (Cont.)

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Controlling Contrast Ratio Auto-iris mode on camera will automatically adjust iris to provide best image If ratio is too big, blacks may be crushed and whites may glow Manual iris will give camera operator more control—but blacks may still crush and whites may still glow

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pop the Contrast Ratio Occurs when trying to shoot image with contrast ratio greater than 40:1 Zebra stripes Will appear in viewfinder warning of popped contrast ratio Appear on hot, or bright, areahot Are not recorded; they are only seen in camera viewfinder

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Solutions to Popped Contrast Ratio Remove item from set Zoom in on subject, reducing amount of offensive material in shot Increase shutter speed Reduce amount of light on set/object

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Contrast Ratio and Graphics Always view graphics on monitor adjusted to display black and white image Totally different colors may have identical luminance and be invisible on black and white screens Stay away from extreme contrast graphics, i.e. black letters on white backgrounds or vice versa

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lower Third Digital Graphics Provides graphics support for television stations Career Page

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is wrong with this graphic? Discussion

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. You are doing documentary on famous artist whose specialty was painting pictures of civil war battles. You have permission to show photos of paintings. What can you do to make still paintings more interesting to viewers of your television program? Discussion

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are the two aspect ratios applicable to television screens? 4:3 and 16:9 Review Question

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is essential area of a graphic? The area that must be seen on a television set, regardless of aspect ratio. Review Question

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How should still photos be used in a video production? Roam camera over photo while using background music for effect. Review Question

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What rules should be followed for displaying text on video screen? Text should remain on screen long enough to be read twice; no more than five words per line, five lines per page; use simple and bold fonts. Review Question

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are the two ways to control movement of the television contrast ratio scale? Place the camera in auto-iris mode, which will adjust the camera further up or down on the contrast ratio scale. Place the camera in manual-iris mode, overriding the setting and forcing the camera to accept images higher than 40:1. Review Question

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What effect will the difference between the motion picture frame rate and the television frame rate have on a television? It will cause the images on the television to flicker or roll when seen in a movie. Review Question

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. aspect ratio: The relationship of the width of the television screen to the height of the television screen, as in 4:3 (four by three) or 16:9 (sixteen by nine). character generator (CG): A device that creates (generates) letters (characters), primarily for titles. contrast ratio: The relationship between the brightest object and the darkest object in the television picture. Glossary

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. crawl: Words that appear either at the top or the bottom of the screen and move from the right edge of the screen to the left, without interrupting the program in progress. credits: The written material presented before and after programs, listing the names and job titles of the people involved in the program’s production. Glossary

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. digital intermediate: A high quality digital version of a motion picture created by digitally scanning motion picture film. essential area: The area of an image or shot that must be seen on any television set, regardless of aspect ratio or age, and must include all the words in a graphic. film scanner: A digital device designed to copy/scan motion picture film. Glossary

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. fps: The rate at which individual pictures are displayed in a motion picture and on television, expressed as frames per second. graphics: All of the “artwork” seen in a program, including the paintings that hang on the walls of a set, the opening and closing program titles, computer graphics, charts, graphs, and any other electronic representation that may be part of a visual presentation. Glossary

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. hot: A term used to describe an image or shot that is very bright. luminance: A measure of the brightness or lightness of a video image. pop the contrast ratio: When the brightness or darkness of objects in a shot exceeds the contrast ratio limitations of video. roll: Titles in a program that move up the screen. Glossary

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. telecine: A device that facilitates the transfer of film images onto videotape. Telecines are used, for example, to transfer theatrical motion pictures to DVDs for purchase or rental. Also called a film chain or film island. titles: The letters and characters generated by a CG that are displayed on-screen. Glossary


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