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Nationalism, Sectionalism, and the Presidents

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism, Sectionalism, and the Presidents"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism, Sectionalism, and the Presidents
Era of good feelings Nationalism, Sectionalism, and the Presidents


3 Nationalism? Sectionalism?
WHAT IS… Nationalism? Sectionalism?

4 Review Quiz War of 1812-how did it end?
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS-Why this name? Define Nationalism and give 2 examples of Nationalism. Define Sectionalism and give 2 examples of Sectionalism.

5 Defined Nationalism(n): loyalty or devotion to a nation, especially an attitude, feeling, or belief characterized by a sense of national consciousness; an exaltation of one nation above all others Sectionalism (n): restriction of interest to a narrow sphere; undue concern with local interests or petty distinctions at the expense of general well-being.

6 President # 5 James Monroe
Americans still feeling their Post-War Nationalism Monroe’s Presidency is defined by this nationalism “Era of Good Feelings” Harmony in Politics: Federalist Party is dead US only has one major political party—the Democratic-Republicans Many areas of government affected by this new sense of nationalism

7 Judicial nationalism McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden
GROUP ACTIVITY Break into pairs Answer the questions for the 2 court cases Be prepared to discuss the 5 W’s

8 Nationalism-supreme court
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1818 MD tried to tax the state branch of US Supreme Court ruled that a federal institution is supreme to states and states have no control over federal institutions Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 Disagreement over ferries run from NY to NJ One person had permission from state and one had permission from federal gov’t Supreme Court ruled that only the federal gov’t has control over interstate commerce

9 Economy: “American system”
PROPOSAL 1. Protective Tariff 2. National Bank 3. Road / Canal Building ACTION 1. Adopted 1816; % 2. B of US Chartered in 1816 3. National Road (aka Cumberland Road) construction begins States must undertake their own projects: Erie Canal (1817/1825) Ohio & Erie Canal (1832)

10 Protective Tariffs After the War of 1812, Great Britain sends cheap goods into the US, threatening to put US companies out of business. Does this sound familiar? Tariff of 1816 Protective Tariff—created to protect US businesses New England shippers and Southern farmers don’t want the tariff but it passes anyways

11 Economic Nationalism The Second National Bank (end of Madison’s term)
First charter expired 1811; Banks free to print their own money 1816, Congress est. 2nd National Bank; many opposed to using money for internal improvements

12 Transportation Bill Congress passes a bill to created federally sponsored roads and canals Monroe vetoes this bill, believing it to be unconstitutional (the Federal government can’t build roads) Private Businesses then pick up the project States fund improved transportation efforts


14 Panic of 1819 What would you do if you were President?
Explain what caused the Panic of 1819 Come up with 3 policies you would employ to try and combat the problems that arose in 1819.

15 Review List and explain 2 examples of events that strengthened nationalism in the United States during the Era of Good Feelings

16 National diplomacy Adam-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine
Worked as Minister of France Sect. of State: JQA Advisor: Jefferson

17 Jackson Invades Florida
1818: Spain still has control of Florida US runaway slaves escape to Spanish Florida Native Americans retreat to Spanish Florida Creek Indians travel to Florida to regroup and plan a new strategy for attack on Georgia call themselves “Seminoles” meaning runaways John C Calhoun, now Secretary of War to Monroe, authorizes military action against the Seminoles


19 Adams-Onis treaty Jackson goes to Florida for the Seminoles
Destroys a few cities and removing the Governor (oops) Spain is angry, Monroe is angry Secretary of State JQA defends Jackson, claiming Spain wasn’t keeping order in Florida Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819: ends debate with Spain, Spain gives all of Florida to the United States, est. border between U.S. and “New Spain” (aka Mexico)


21 Monroe Doctrine Spain’s colonies being to revolt
1824: Spain only has 3 island colonies European nations of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia form the “Quadruple Alliance” Suppress democracy in Europe Also wants to help Spain get back lost colonies This leads James Monroe to create the Monroe Doctrine

22 MONROE DOCTRINE, explained
1. Western Hemisphere was closed to further European exploration 2. US would not interfere with existing colonies under European power 3. The US would not interfere with internal affairs of any European power 4. Any attempt by Europe to intervene would be regarded as an act of aggression

23 Significance? How does the Monroe Doctrine impact American and European involvement in worldly affairs? 1. Proved nationalism in US yet again 2. America is officially becoming a world power 3. Isolation policy 4. US can exert its influence without European interference…

24 SECTIONALLISM (n): restriction of interest to a narrow sphere; undue concern with local interests or petty distinctions at the expense of general well-being. What are some causes of sectionalism in the U.S.? Regional Disputes-land differences, slavery Protective Tariff/Second Bank Disputes Internal Improvements-roads, canals, etc


26 Sectionalism As Americans start to expand, there is a fragile balance of power between slave states and free states. When new states enter the union, we want to maintain the balance Missouri Compromise

27 Missouri compromise break down
Applied to enter the union as a SLAVE state Pre-Missouri: Slave States=11, Free States=11 Addition of a Slave State would give South control of Senate (North already had the house because of population) Slavery Issue: “like a firebell in the night”-TJ

Maine is separated from Mass. to become a Free State Missouri enters as a Slave State All territory NORTH of 36,30’ parallel is closed to slavery

29 Like a firebell in the night
Passed in 1820 Prohibits slavery NORTH of the parallel 36,30’ north, except in the new state of Missouri This will not be permanent, “just a bandaid on a gunshot wound”




33 Missouri compromise What is the author saying?
Does he believe the Missouri Compromise should pass? Why? What is his opinion of slavery? How would the Compromise affect slavery? Do you agree with the author's point of view? Why or why not?

34 DEBATE 1. Opening Statement Presenter: One student gathers the main arguments into an introductory statement. Does not give specific information, merely says, “this is true because of reasons A, B, and C.” 2. Topic Presenters: Three, (or more), students present the main arguments for the team. Each presenter gives specific details that prove his/her argument. 3. Rebuttal Presenters: Two, (or more), students answer the arguments of the other team. These students must take notes as the other team presents, and then respond to the opposing arguments by using specific information to disprove each one. 4. Closing Statement Presenter: One student presents the closing argument of the team. PRESENTING AT THE END OF CLASS (OR FIRST THING TOMORROW)

35 REVIEW QUESTIONS What factors promoted a surge of nationalism post War of 1812? What was Henry Clay’s “American System” and how did it introduce economic nationalism? Explain the irony concerning the Republican Agenda as it relates to the Federalist period. The Adams-Onis Treaty resulted in the US gaining what territory and from who? What major idea did the US establish with the Monroe Doctrine?

36 End of the Era of Good Feelings
John Quincy Adams End of the Era of Good Feelings

37 Elections of 1824 What info is available to you? John Quincy Adams-R
What do you notice about these 4 candidates? If you lived in NY, IL, or MS, what would you know about these candidates? What policies or plans do you think these candidates are in favor of/against? Who would you vote for and why? John Quincy Adams-R Home State: MA Andrew Jackson-R Home state: TN William Harrison Crawford-R Home State: GA Henry Clay-R Home State: KY John C. Calhoun-R (dropped)

38 Adams v. jackson Adams’s Song: “Little Know Ye Who’s Comin’” h?v=tnhBWckoTps Jackson’s Song: “Hunters of KY” h?v=7rFB2Pq19yU

39 Song Questions… How do the songs differ?
What mood does each song evoke? What information does each song provide? Using the lyrics, describe the character and potential of the two candidates. Based on this additional information, how would you vote? How did the songs influence your vote or change your original opinion?

40 Adams and Jackson: Resumes
John Adams: Sect of State Former minister to Russia Drafted Treaty of Ghent Outlined Monroe Doctrine Adams-Onis Treaty Backed merchant interests of New England Son of former President “Principle, not Popular” Andrew Jackson General and War Hero of 1812 Battle of New Orleans U.S. Representative and Senator Complete opposite of Adams “Down to earth” common Accused of gambling, murder, dueling, adultery, and military tyranny

41 Election of 1824 What parties? ONLY ONE! (why?)
5 Republican Candidates… Electoral College: Jackson, 99 votes; Adams, 84 No majority winner so it falls to the House… Clay=Speaker of the House, HATES Jackson Clay-Adams Alliance: Clay (KY) allies with Adams (NE) to secure his winning of the Presidency in return for becoming Sect. of State…CORRUPT BARGAINING Potential effects? 2 Party System back in action National Republicans (Whigs)-Adams/Clay Democrats-Jackson

42 JQA’s Presidency: A man of principle
One term president (following daddy’s footsteps) Immediately torn down by Jackson Favored strong federal economic policies like American System Desired publically funded universities for research Elitist

43 JQA Very few ideas passed by Congress
Questioned dangers of democracy (GASP) Refused to campaign-not a popularity contest, comes off as elitist Overturned Creek Indian Treaty of 1825-returned lands to Indians (Gasp again) JQA’s wife Louisa was born outside of the US; dissenters used this to accuse him of being pro-British

44 Political cartoon Your cartoon must be on typing paper and in INK and COLORED Your work will be assessed on the quality of your analysis as well as your artistic effort Be prepared to share your work

45 Potential topics! Hartford Convention Death of Federalist Party
Era of Good Feelings The American System (or Key Components) Adams-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden Missouri Compromise Election of 1824 Corrupt Bargaining Panic of 1819 Legacy of John Marshal




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