3Nationalism? Sectionalism? WHAT IS…Nationalism? Sectionalism?
4Review Quiz War of 1812-how did it end? ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS-Why this name?Define Nationalism and give 2 examples of Nationalism.Define Sectionalism and give 2 examples of Sectionalism.
5DefinedNationalism(n): loyalty or devotion to a nation, especially an attitude, feeling, or belief characterized by a sense of national consciousness; an exaltation of one nation above all othersSectionalism (n): restriction of interest to a narrow sphere; undue concern with local interests or petty distinctions at the expense of general well-being.
6President # 5 James Monroe Americans still feeling their Post-War NationalismMonroe’s Presidency is defined by this nationalism“Era of Good Feelings”Harmony in Politics:Federalist Party is deadUS only has one major political party—the Democratic-RepublicansMany areas of government affected by this new sense of nationalism
7Judicial nationalism McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden GROUP ACTIVITYBreak into pairsAnswer the questions for the 2 court casesBe prepared to discuss the 5 W’s
8Nationalism-supreme court McCulloch v. Maryland, 1818MD tried to tax the state branch of USSupreme Court ruled that a federal institution is supreme to states and states have no control over federal institutionsGibbons v. Ogden, 1824Disagreement over ferries run from NY to NJOne person had permission from state and one had permission from federal gov’tSupreme Court ruled that only the federal gov’t has control over interstate commerce
9Economy: “American system” PROPOSAL 1. Protective Tariff 2. National Bank 3. Road / Canal BuildingACTION1. Adopted 1816; %2. B of US Chartered in 18163. National Road (aka Cumberland Road) construction beginsStates must undertake their own projects:Erie Canal (1817/1825)Ohio & Erie Canal (1832)
10Protective TariffsAfter the War of 1812, Great Britain sends cheap goods into the US, threatening to put US companies out of business. Does this sound familiar?Tariff of 1816Protective Tariff—created to protect US businessesNew England shippers and Southern farmers don’t want the tariff but it passes anyways
11Economic Nationalism The Second National Bank (end of Madison’s term) First charter expired 1811; Banks free to print their own money1816, Congress est. 2nd National Bank; many opposed to using money for internal improvements
12Transportation BillCongress passes a bill to created federally sponsored roads and canalsMonroe vetoes this bill, believing it to be unconstitutional (the Federal government can’t build roads)Private Businesses then pick up the projectStates fund improved transportation efforts
14Panic of 1819 What would you do if you were President? Explain what caused the Panic of 1819Come up with 3 policies you would employ to try and combat the problems that arose in 1819.
15ReviewList and explain 2 examples of events that strengthened nationalism in the United States during the Era of Good Feelings
16National diplomacy Adam-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine Worked as Minister of FranceSect. of State: JQAAdvisor: Jefferson
17Jackson Invades Florida 1818: Spain still has control of FloridaUS runaway slaves escape to Spanish FloridaNative Americans retreat to Spanish FloridaCreek Indians travel to Florida to regroup and plan a new strategy for attack on Georgiacall themselves “Seminoles” meaning runawaysJohn C Calhoun, now Secretary of War to Monroe, authorizes military action against the Seminoles
19Adams-Onis treaty Jackson goes to Florida for the Seminoles Destroys a few cities and removing the Governor (oops)Spain is angry, Monroe is angrySecretary of State JQA defends Jackson, claiming Spain wasn’t keeping order in FloridaAdams-Onis Treaty of 1819: ends debate with Spain, Spain gives all of Florida to the United States, est. border between U.S. and “New Spain” (aka Mexico)
21Monroe Doctrine Spain’s colonies being to revolt 1824: Spain only has 3 island coloniesEuropean nations of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia form the “Quadruple Alliance”Suppress democracy in EuropeAlso wants to help Spain get back lost coloniesThis leads James Monroe to create the Monroe Doctrine
22MONROE DOCTRINE, explained 1. Western Hemisphere was closed to further European exploration2. US would not interfere with existing colonies under European power3. The US would not interfere with internal affairs of any European power4. Any attempt by Europe to intervene would be regarded as an act of aggression
23Significance?How does the Monroe Doctrine impact American and European involvement in worldly affairs?1. Proved nationalism in US yet again2. America is officially becoming a world power3. Isolation policy4. US can exert its influence without European interference…
24SECTIONALLISM(n): restriction of interest to a narrow sphere; undue concern with local interests or petty distinctions at the expense of general well-being.What are some causes of sectionalism in the U.S.?Regional Disputes-land differences, slaveryProtective Tariff/Second Bank DisputesInternal Improvements-roads, canals, etc
26SectionalismAs Americans start to expand, there is a fragile balance of power between slave states and free states.When new states enter the union, we want to maintain the balanceMissouri Compromise
27Missouri compromise break down Applied to enter the union as a SLAVE statePre-Missouri: Slave States=11, Free States=11Addition of a Slave State would give South control of Senate (North already had the house because of population)Slavery Issue: “like a firebell in the night”-TJ
28THE COMPROMISE Henry Clay Maine is separated from Mass. to become a Free StateMissouri enters as a Slave StateAll territory NORTH of 36,30’ parallel is closed to slavery
29Like a firebell in the night Passed in 1820Prohibits slavery NORTH of the parallel 36,30’ north, except in the new state of MissouriThis will not be permanent, “just a bandaid on a gunshot wound”
33Missouri compromise What is the author saying? Does he believe the Missouri Compromise should pass? Why?What is his opinion of slavery?How would the Compromise affect slavery?Do you agree with the author's point of view? Why or why not?
34DEBATE1. Opening Statement Presenter: One student gathers the main arguments into an introductory statement. Does not give specific information, merely says, “this is true because of reasons A, B, and C.”2. Topic Presenters: Three, (or more), students present the main arguments for the team. Each presenter gives specific details that prove his/her argument.3. Rebuttal Presenters: Two, (or more), students answer the arguments of the other team. These students must take notes as the other team presents, and then respond to the opposing arguments by using specific information to disprove each one.4. Closing Statement Presenter: One student presents the closing argument of the team.PRESENTING AT THE END OF CLASS (OR FIRST THING TOMORROW)
35REVIEW QUESTIONSWhat factors promoted a surge of nationalism post War of 1812?What was Henry Clay’s “American System” and how did it introduce economic nationalism?Explain the irony concerning the Republican Agenda as it relates to the Federalist period.The Adams-Onis Treaty resulted in the US gaining what territory and from who?What major idea did the US establish with the Monroe Doctrine?
36End of the Era of Good Feelings John Quincy AdamsEnd of the Era of Good Feelings
37Elections of 1824 What info is available to you? John Quincy Adams-R What do you notice about these 4 candidates?If you lived in NY, IL, or MS, what would you know about these candidates?What policies or plans do you think these candidates are in favor of/against?Who would you vote for and why?John Quincy Adams-RHome State: MAAndrew Jackson-RHome state: TNWilliam Harrison Crawford-RHome State: GAHenry Clay-RHome State: KYJohn C. Calhoun-R (dropped)
38Adams v. jackson Adams’s Song: “Little Know Ye Who’s Comin’” https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=tnhBWckoTpsJackson’s Song:“Hunters of KY”https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=7rFB2Pq19yU
39Song Questions… How do the songs differ? What mood does each song evoke?What information does each song provide?Using the lyrics, describe the character and potential of the two candidates.Based on this additional information, how would you vote?How did the songs influence your vote or change your original opinion?
40Adams and Jackson: Resumes John Adams:Sect of StateFormer minister to RussiaDrafted Treaty of GhentOutlined Monroe DoctrineAdams-Onis TreatyBacked merchant interests of New EnglandSon of former President“Principle, not Popular”Andrew JacksonGeneral and War Hero of 1812Battle of New OrleansU.S. Representative and SenatorComplete opposite of Adams“Down to earth” commonAccused of gambling, murder, dueling, adultery, and military tyranny
41Election of 1824 What parties? ONLY ONE! (why?) 5 Republican Candidates…Electoral College: Jackson, 99 votes; Adams, 84No majority winner so it falls to the House…Clay=Speaker of the House, HATES JacksonClay-Adams Alliance: Clay (KY) allies with Adams (NE) to secure his winning of the Presidency in return for becoming Sect. of State…CORRUPT BARGAININGPotential effects? 2 Party System back in actionNational Republicans (Whigs)-Adams/ClayDemocrats-Jackson
42JQA’s Presidency: A man of principle One term president (following daddy’s footsteps)Immediately torn down by JacksonFavored strong federal economic policies like American SystemDesired publically funded universities for researchElitist
43JQA Very few ideas passed by Congress Questioned dangers of democracy (GASP)Refused to campaign-not a popularity contest, comes off as elitistOverturned Creek Indian Treaty of 1825-returned lands to Indians (Gasp again)JQA’s wife Louisa was born outside of the US; dissenters used this to accuse him of being pro-British
44Political cartoonYour cartoon must be on typing paper and in INK and COLOREDYour work will be assessed on the quality of your analysis as well as your artistic effortBe prepared to share your work
45Potential topics! Hartford Convention Death of Federalist Party Era of Good FeelingsThe American System (or Key Components)Adams-Onis TreatyMonroe DoctrineMcCulloch v. MarylandGibbons v. OgdenMissouri CompromiseElection of 1824Corrupt BargainingPanic of 1819Legacy of John Marshal