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Unity and Sectionalism

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1 Unity and Sectionalism
Growth and Expansion: Unity and Sectionalism

2 The Era of Good Feelings
The absence of major political divisions after the War of helped forge a sense of national unity which a Boston newspaper called “The Era of Good Feelings.” In the 1816 presidential election, James Monroe, the Republican candidate, faced almost no opposition. Monroe spent much of his first term touring the country and greeting citizens. He paid his own expenses and tried to travel without an official escort. In 1820 President Monroe won reelection, winning all but one electoral vote.

3 Sectionalism Grows The Era of Good Feelings did not last long as regional differences soon came to the surface. Most Americans felt a strong allegiance to the region where they lived such as the North, South, or West. This sectionalism became more intense as differences arose over national policies. The conflict over slavery became particularly heated as Southerners supported it and Northerners opposed it. Southern whites claimed that any attempt by the federal government to limit slavery was a infringement on states’ rights.

4 Other Disagreements The different regions also disagreed on the need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements. Internal improvements were federal, state, and privately funded projects such as canal and roads, to develop the nation’s transportation system. 3 powerful voices emerged in Congress in the early 1800s as spokespersons for their regions.

5 3 Powerful Voices John C. Calhoun: planter from South Carolina who supported state sovereignty, the idea that states have autonomous power. Argued that tariffs raised prices on manufactured goods that people needed. Daniel Webster: Representative of New Hampshire and then Massachusetts who favored the Tariff of 1816 which protected American industries from foreign competition. Henry Clay: Speaker of the House, from Kentucky, who represented the Western states. Believed in compromise.

6 The Missouri Compromise
Sectional tension reached new heights in 1820 over the issue of admitting new states. The South wanted Missouri admitted as a slave state, but the North wanted it free. While the debate was still going on, Maine also applied for statehood. Eventually Henry Clay helped negotiate the Missouri Compromise which admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. It also banned slavery in any new territories north of the N parallel.

7 The American System In addition to the Missouri Compromise, Henry Clay also came up with a plan called “The American System.” This included a protective tariff, a program of internal improvements to stimulate trade, and a national bank to control inflation and lend money to developing industries. He believed that the tariff would provide money to build roads and canals which would help businesses. Many Southerners, including Thomas Jefferson, believed that the plan would only benefit the wealthy manufacturing classes of New England. In the end, very few of Clay’s suggestions were put into practice.

8 McCulloch v. Maryland The Supreme Court also became involved in the issue of states’ rights. Maryland had imposed a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States, a federal institution. The Bank refused to pay, and took Maryland to court. Speaking for the Court, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland had no right to tax a federal institution. The Constitution and the federal government received their authority directly from the people, not by way of the state governments.

9 Relations With Britain
In the years following the War of 1812, President Monroe and his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, moved to resolve long- standing disputes with Great Britain. In 1817, the Rush-Bagot Treaty provided for disarmament, the removal of weapons, by setting limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes. The Convention of 1818 set the boundary between the U.S. and British Canada at the 49th parallel and demilitarized the border.

10 Relations With Spain Spain owned East Florida and also claimed West Florida, but the United States contended that West Florida was part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810 and 1812, Americans simply added parts of West Florida to Louisiana and Mississippi, and although Spain objected, it took no action. In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East Florida, seizing control of 2 Spanish forts. Although he had been ordered to stop Seminole raids on American territory, capturing Spanish forts were not part of his instructions. Secretary of War Calhoun said Jackson should be court-martialed.

11 Adams-Onis Treaty Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, on the other hand, saw what Jackson had done as a means to an end. Already troubled by rebellions in Mexico and South America, Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in which gave both East and West Florida to the United States. In return the United States gave up its claims to Spanish Texas and took over responsibility for paying the $5 million that American citizens claimed Spain owed them for damages. The U.S. also gained a large piece of territory in the Northwest making America a transcontinental power.

12 Spain Loses Its Empire In the fall of 1810 a priest, Miguel Hidalgo, led a rebellion against the Spanish government in Mexico. Although Hidalgo was defeated and executed, Mexico did eventually gain its independence in 1821. Simon Bolivar, also known as “the Liberator,” led the movement that won freedom for present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Jose de San Martin successfully achieved independence for Chile and Peru. By 1824, Spain’s once great empire in the Americas had shrunk to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and a few other islands in the Caribbean.

13 The Monroe Doctrine In 1822 Spain had asked France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia to help in its fight against revolutionary forces in South America. The possibility of increased European involvement in the Americas led President Monroe to take action. The president issued a statement, later known as the Monroe Doctrine, that while the United States would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, North and South America “are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

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