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Diseases of the Integumentary System

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases of the Integumentary System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases of the Integumentary System
Casey Conway Jeannie Stall , R.V.T. Google Images

2 Skin Largest organ 3 layers: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
Barrier between animals body and the environment Protects from physical, chemical, microbiological Important indicator of internal disease One of the most common problems Important indicator of internal disease MM, icteric

3 Canine Skin

4 Ectoparasites Ear Mites Fleas Ticks Mange Warbles (Cuterebra) Maggots
Lice Ear mite Lice (anoplura)

5 Ear Mites Surface of skin – external ear canal
Feed on epidermal debris Clinical Signs Brown, black crusty exudate Irritating, scratching Scrapes, wounds Diagnose: otoscope – see large adults, ear swab, microscopic evaluation Tx: Clean ears, medication (Tresaderm)

6 Fleas Blood-sucking, mammals and birds
Severe skin irritation – frequent bites Flea saliva is highly antigenic in some animals causing an allergic dermatitis Intermediate host – dog tapeworm (dipylidium) Vector dz Clin. Signs: fleas, flea dirt, skin lesions - bites

7 FAD (Flea Allergy Dermatitis)

8 Fleas cont. Tx: several products – OTC gen. not effective
Topical: sprays, dips, powders, shampoos Sprays/powders use combo ingredients Specific species/age – VERY CAREFUL Dips – residual effect – can be very toxic Shampoos have no residual effect

9 Fleas cont. Systemic: spot-ons, oral, inj. Advantage – mo. spot-on
Program – monthly tablet or 6 mo. injection – absorbed by fatty tissue – bloodstream Frontline – mo. spot-on – not true systemic Sentinel – mo. Tab Revolution – mo spot-on Capstar- Tablet / Fast but only lasts 24 hrs.

10 Fleas cont. Huge client education issue
Not just one animal in household/family Even if they never go outside Will bite/feed on humans but are generally species specific Can be dormant for months Clean ,clean ,clean !!!!

11 Ticks Blood-sucking arthropod
Not species specific – all warm blooded animals including humans Heavy infestation – anemia Transmit many dz – bact, viral, rickettsial, protozoan Bites, vector dz, neurotoxin in saliva of 12 species causes tick paralysis in dogs Brown dog tick

12 Ticks cont. Clin. Signs – tick (lump) on the animal
Weak, pale MM (lg number) Flaccid paralysis Arthritis-like symptoms, joints (lymes) Tx – manual removal of all ticks Topicals, sprays, powders, dips Frontline, advantix, revolution, Treat environment Prevention is best! American dog tick

13 Mange 3 primary “mange” mites in dogs & cats
Demodectic, sarcoptic, notoedric Demodectic mange (non-pruritic) Mites live in the hair follicles of most dogs and cats Localized: 3m-1y age, hx, alopecia – head, forelegs, trunk. “Red Mange” Generalized: febrile, entire body, secondary bact skin infx - pustules

14 Demodectic Mange cont. Dx skin scrape – mite identification
Tx age, lesions, vet preference Mitaban dip Ivermectin – off-label Not contagious Generalized form can be fatal

15 Sarcoptic Mange Intensely pruritic – unlike demodex Highly contagious
Mites burrow in skin Can infect humans – only live for a few days off original host Rarely infects cats

16 Sarcoptic Mange cont. Clin signs – red lesions – ears, elbows, trunk
Itch itch itch Secondary bact infx Progression is more severe Dx with skin scrape – deep in epidermis Biopsy Tx dips, ivermectin (off-label)

17 Warbles (Cuterebra) Fly lays eggs in the soil
Grub penetrates host skin, mature Leaves as an adult fly Fistula (opening) to breathe Young animals – esp. rabbits Large swelling behind ears/neck Incise fistula and remove larva Flush wound, abx NEVER CRUSH! Anaphylactic Rxn

18 Cuterebra Hole

19 Maggots ( Myiasis) Adult flies lay eggs in wet, warm, damaged skin on animal Eggs hatch – larvae – highly destructive Large ulcerated area Heavy coats, neglect, matted hair, bad odor, painful reaction Clip hair, flush wounds, manually remove all larvae (avoid dips – open wound) Daily wound mgmt – must! Abx, keep inside

20 Lice Don’t effect humans – host specific Dz of neglect
Pets agitated, intense itching, anemia Presence of lice in coat diagnostic Dips, dusts, shampoos. Clip hair Nits form cocoons on hair shafts Mallophaga- (chewing/biting lice)

21 Fungal Infections Ringworm (microsporum canis)
Circular patch of alopecia – face/head Zoonotic! Esp. children, elderly Wood’s lamp(Black light)– 50% fluoresce yellow/green Culture, clip area, tx antifungal until 2 wk post Oral therapy Hairs shed from infx animal remain contagious for up to 18 months!

22 Ringworm

23 Pyoderma Bacterial infection of the skin
Primary Secondary Superficial Deep Superficial: hot spots, impetigo, acne, skin-fold pyoderma

24 Hot Spots Acute moist dermatitis Infection and inflammation
Any break or irritation in skin 95% staph - bad fast – very itchy Tx : clip/clean, Cortisone inj. Rx Cortisone spray or tabs E-collar +/- abx

25 Impetigo Strep – lesions – unhealthy animal Culture and sensitivity
Systemic abx Shampoo, topical Not contagious

26 Superficial Pyoderma cont.
Acne Chronic, worse cats Clean bowls Skin-fold pyoderma Redundant tissue traps moisture/heat Long-term tx Surgical removal of extra skin Breeds – brachycephalic Deep pyoderma Papules, pustules, usually drug resistant Lick granuloma

27 Feline Acne Comedomes

28 Anal glands Location of glands @ 4 & 8 o’clock positions
Duct 2 & 10 o’clock positions Impaction Chronic infection Rupture – surgical tx Expression – natural with bm, manually Lavage, instill abx Oral abx

29 Infected Anal Gland

30 Tumors / Cancer Benign – no harm Malignant – may result in death
Localized Invasive Specialized area so many types Benign skin tumors Histiocytomas, lipoma , papilloma, sebaceous cyst (fatty tumor), ( warts) , ( within skin)

31 Tumors / Cancer cont. Malignant skin tumors Basal cell carcinoma
Fibrosarcoma (not vx-induced) Feline Fibrosarcoma (vx-induced) Mast cell tumors Prior trt.- Sx. & Millipore H2O New trt.- Kinavet CA1

32 Tumors cont Melanoma Benign – small Malignant – large
Biopsy, surgical excision Metastasize readily Poor prognosis Recurrence is common

33 Tumors cont Perianal tumors (Adenoma, Adenocarcinoma)
Small, slow-growing, close to the anus Ulcerated Location, biopsy, surgical excision Castration aids in preventing recurrence Radiation Cryosurgery

34 Tumors cont Squamous cell carcinoma
Raised, ulcerated, cauliflower-like mass Biopsy, surgical excision Radiotherapy Cryosurgery Recurrence is common

35 Horses Skin issues common Age, season, confinement Herd or alone
Location, geography Insects!! Huge part of equine management.

36 Insect Hypersensitivity
Systemic allergic rxn to insect bites (gnats) Intense pruritis, alopecia, uticaria, lesions Dx with clin. signs and presence of insects Tx insect control, fly spray, manure mgmt Antihistamines generally don’t help If lesions bad – abx

37 Fly Bite Dermatitis Wheals, pustules, nodules
Treat w/ fly spray or VIP oint. Insect control/management Care of wounds

38 Lice One of the most common ectoparasites on horses
Sucking lice – more damage, live off blood Biting or Chewing lice – live off dead cells and debris in the skin Winter – longer coat Direct contact transmission, carried on objects Itching – tail, mane See adults, eggs in the hair Shampoo (pyrethrin), tx environment, clip Tx all horses in herd/barn Ivermectin effect more against sucking lice than biting

39 Mites Normal inhabitant of skin Dz in immunocompromised animals
Itching lesions Skin scrape Dips Ivermectin

40 Ticks Bite sensitivity – ears, face, neck, groin, tail
Some severe systemic hypersensitivity Tick paralysis Removal Pyrethrin dips Frontline (off-label)

41 Onchocerciasis Nematode parasite Adults live in ligaments of the neck
Larvae migrate thru skin and cause dermatitis Insects implicated in spread – flies Dx by response to treatment Tx ivermectin, repeating dose 3 wks Death of microfilariae cause itching, use steroids

42 Onchocerciasis conjunctivitis

43 Rain Scald / Rain Rot Fungal and bacterial components
Organisms trapped in hair – reproduce Direct contact, objects Clin. Signs: matted hair, alopecia, crusting White legs Nonpruritic, but may be painful Bathe: iodine, chlorhex, antifungal Prevented with daily grooming and attention Infectious – disinfect grooming materials and tack More attention during winter month, thaw, spring

44 Ringworm Zoonotic! Fungi: trichophyton and microsporum
Direct contact, objects Multifocal lesions, alopecia Classic round shape, may or may not itch Fungal culture Self-limiting (in horses), disinfect tack, etc. Topical antifungals, miconazole, iodine, chlorhex, griseofulvin

45 Sarcoids Most common skin tumor in horses
Single tumor or multiple nodules Biopsy, surgical excision Injection of chemo agents into tumor cryosurgery

46 Proud Flesh Furacin oint may cause an increase in development
Red, protruding cauliflower-like flesh over wound that bleed easily, distal limbs Scar tissue growing out of control (exuberant granulation tissue) Meat tenderizer, enzyme sprays Removal – no sensory nerve endings in scar tissue Avoid caustic substances that delay healing Prevent with wraps, chlorhex/steroid oint Furacin oint may cause an increase in development Bleeds a lot when cut off but horse doesn’t feel it

47 Proud Flesh

48 Warts (Papillomatosis)
Young horses <3 yr Papillomavirus Direct contact, objects Wart-like growths – muzzle, lips Self-limiting Separation to prevent spread to other horses

49 Wounds External trauma Specific tx depending on source Suture, staple
Puncture wounds Abx therapy Tetanus booster Use tetanus toxoid, not antitoxin in vaccinated horses – severe anaphylactic reactions reported

50 Sheep and Goats Contagious Ecthyma
AKA sore mouth, orf, scabby mouth Parapoxvirus – epithelial tissue Active in environ. for months if not yrs Direct contact, objects Papules, pustules, vesicles Thick crust around mouth – spread to oral cavity, eyelids, feet, udder Typ. resolves in 2 wks, unless lesions are severe – supportive care More severe in goats than sheep Biopsy Zoonotic

51 Contagious Ecthyma

52 Dermatophilosis Bacterial (Dermatophilosis congolensis)
Wet or moist conditions Trapped in hair/wool and reproduce Direct contact, objects Matted hair, alopecia, crusting Impression smear Systemic penicillin or oxytetracycline Topical treatment – sulfates

53 Ringworm Similar to cats, dogs, horses, cattle Zoonotic
Same clin. signs – circular lesions, esp. face Mild/mod itching Fungal culture Topical treatment, separation

54 Lice (Pediculosis) Winter months, crowding Sucking and biting
Direct contact, objects Intense itch, alopecia Topical solutions are effective Ivermectin – sucking lice Species specific

55 Mange Mites More goats than sheep Variety of mites – all treated same
Skin scrape Dips

56 Cattle Horn flies & stable flies – blood-sucking
Cause reduced growth rate in beef cattle and reduced milk production in dairy cattle Ectoparasites – fleas, ticks, horseflies, mosquitoes – (all vectors for dz) Insecticide-impregnated plastic tags on ears Treated rubs, pour-ons

57 Foot Rot Bacteria in moist environment on skin/coat
Injury/wound allows dirt to become lodged between claws and promote softening and cracking of horny tissue Wounds permit entrance of infectious bacteria 1 or more feet may be affected Swelling lower part of leg/coronet – abscess Foul discharge, acute lameness Clean wound/site – IV sulfonamide help healing Daily check of livestock Sheep and hogs

58 Foot Rot

59 Blackleg Symptomatic anthrax – clostridium sp.
Cattle, sheep, occas. goats, horses, swine Acute rise in temp to 106 degrees F Lameness, swelling in leg, hind end Dry, crepitating skin Dark red or brown muscle lesions Large doses of penicillin, br.spec abx if early Guarded prognosis, burn carcasses

60 Swine Lice Mange mites Internal parasites

61 Swine Erysipelas Diamond skin disease - bacterial
Direct or indirect, lives in soil, urine, feces Swine, cattle, goats, horses, humans Febrile – 105, dull pain, depression, loss of appetite, sudden death Swellings like bee stings over body, lame Skin may slough, loss of ear tips and tails May cause abortion in pigs Antiserum, penicillin Vaccine

Maggots in a prairie dog ( photo credit-- MYIASIS IN A PRAIRIE DOG (MAGGOTS)

63 Demodex mites ( photo credit—

64 Demodex chart ( credit-- )

65 Sarcoptes mite ( photo credit–

66 Cuterebra in a rat ( photo credit– )

Louse ( photo credit-- ) LOUSE “ SUCKING LICE” (ANAPLURA)

Horse with severe lice infestation ( photo credit– dierenklinieklemmer ) SEVERE EQUINE LICE INFESTATION

69 Larval migrans ( photo credit— )

70 Ringworm ( photo credit— )


Thrush site ( photo credit— ) “THRUSH “ INVOLVES THE FROG OF THE HOOF

Feline vaccine- induced fibrosarcoma ( photo credit-- ) FELINE VACCINE-INDUCED FIBROSARCOMA


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