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Wand Cheng-jun Lesson Five Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman.

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1 Wand Cheng-jun Lesson Five Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman

2 Wand Cheng-jun Aims 1. To have a basic knowledge of the terms in logic. 2. To appreciate the humor in the story. 3. To analyze the structure of the story 4. To appreciate the language

3 Wand Cheng-jun Teaching Contents 1. Special terms in logic 2. Detailed study of the text 3. Organizational pattern 4. The chief attraction of the story 5. Language features 6. Exercises

4 Wand Cheng-jun Time allocation 1. Terms in logic (15 min.) 2. Detailed study of the text (210 min.) 3. Structure analysis (15 min.) 4. Language appreciation (15 min.) 5. Exercise (25 min.)

5 Wand Cheng-jun About the Author: Max Shulman

6 Wand Cheng-jun About the Author: Max Shulman  a writer in the early '40s as one of America ’ s best-known humorists. Lots of his novels were adapted to the screen.  Best remembered for creating the popular character Dobie Gillis, a typical American teen who frequently suffered from romantic angst. The character appeared on a popular television sitcom during the '50s and was in a feature film in 1953.

7 Wand Cheng-jun Pre-reading questions  1) What ’ s the theme of this story?  2) How do you understand the title of the text?

8 Wand Cheng-jun Pre-reading questions  The theme of the story is stated by the writer in the title of the story. Perhaps Max Shulman wants the reader, after reading the story, to conclude that ‘ love ’ is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic. But the writer, through this story has succeeded perhaps unwittingly in revealing what love may sometimes mean in the affluent society. Girls do not want brilliant, gifted or educated husbands, but want husbands who are rich and wealthy enough to provide all the wealthy things necessary for keeping up with the joneses--- home, clothes, cars, (big mansions, famous brand cars,etc.)

9 Wand Cheng-jun Pre-reading questions  2) How do you understand the title of the text?  The title of the story “ Love is a fallacy ” has two meanings. When “ fallacy ” is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means “ there is a deceptive or delusive quality about love ”. When taken as a specific term in logic, the title means “ love can not be deduced from a set of given premises ”

10 Wand Cheng-jun Lesson Five  I. Special terms in logic argument--a statement which is offered as an evidence or a proof. It consists of two major elements  1. conclusion  2. premises -- a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument. Conclusion is to be drawn from premises.

11 Wand Cheng-jun Special terms in logic  fallacy -- false reasoning, as in an argument a weakness and lack of logic or good sense in an argument or piece of reasoning

12 Wand Cheng-jun fallacy  Usually, an argument is correct (deductively valid) if the premises can provide enough conclusive evidence for the conclusion. Otherwise the argument is wrong. It is said to be fallacious.

13 Wand Cheng-jun Special terms in logic  Three kinds of fallacy: 1. material fallacy -- in its material content through a misstatement of the facts. 2. verbal fallacy -- in its wording through an incorrect use of terms. 3. formal fallacy-in its structure through the use of an improper process of inference.

14 Wand Cheng-jun False Analogy "High school should not require a freshman writing course. Harvard doesn't require a freshman writing course, and the students get along fine without it". --- The analogy is false because the two items don't have strong enough similarities to predict that what happens in one will happen in the other.

15 Wand Cheng-jun Dicta Simpliciter "Everyone wants to get married someday." --- The example starts a logical train of thought with an assumption that is false. Not "everyone" wants to get married.

16 Wand Cheng-jun Evading the issue There are a number of handy fallacies that people press into service to side step a problem while appearing to pursue the point. ( 文不对题 )

17 Wand Cheng-jun 1 ) Distraction "Suds ' n ' Puds is a great restaurant : you can see how shining clean the kitchens are ". --- The example is called distraction because the reader's attention is drawn to the cleanliness of the kitchen instead of to the excellence of the food, which is usually the determiner of a great restaurant.

18 Wand Cheng-jun 2 ) Ad hominem  "against the person". "poisoning the well" " Ms Bauer is a terrible English teacher. She always wears blue jeans" --- Instead of point out faults in teaching technique, it calls attention to things about a teacher as a person that are unrelated to her teaching performance.

19 Wand Cheng-jun 3 ) Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity)  "Look at this fourteen-year-old child who's run away from home to hide her shame-- pregnant, unwashed, friendless. penniless, at the mercy of our social service agencies. Can you till claim that sex should be taught in the classroom?"

20 Wand Cheng-jun 3 ) Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity) --- In this shifty approach to argumentation, the writer gives tear jerking descriptions of the cruel opponents' victims in order to arouse sympathy from the reader.

21 Wand Cheng-jun Hasty Generalization "Mr Wang's handwriting is terrible. Mr. Hu's handwriting is also terrible and you know how terrible men's handwriting is." --- It applies a special case to general rule. That fact that certain person's handwriting is bad doesn't imply that all men ‘ s handwriting is bad.

22 Wand Cheng-jun Post hoc, ergo propter hoc –  “ After this, therefore because of this" "The last five times that I've worn my white pants, something depressing has happened. I'm not going to wear those pants again!" -- This fallacy assumes that if event Y happened after event X, then X must be the cause of Y.

23 Wand Cheng-jun Circular Reasoning  or Begging the question: "Juan is an impressive speaker because he always touches his listeners deeply."

24 Wand Cheng-jun Circular Reasoning  --- This problem occurs when the writer tries to support a claim by restating it in different words. You can tell this example is circular by considering this “ Why is Juan an impressive speaker? ” “ Because he touches his listeners deeply.? ” “ Why are Juan's listeners touched so deeply? ” “ Because he is an impressive speaker. ” impressive = touching someone deeply

25 Wand Cheng-jun Appeal to the Wrong Authority "My political science teacher says that the new math is impossible for children to learn “.

26 Wand Cheng-jun Appeal to the Wrong Authority --- If the student believes that political science teacher's low opinion of new math strongly supports an argument against new math, the student is wrong. The political science teacher is an authority, but in a different field.

27 Wand Cheng-jun Non Sequitur -- "it doesn't follow" "Students who take earth science instead of physics are lazy. Susie took earth science instead of physics. Susie should be kicked out of school" --- If the first statement is correct, then you could conclude that Susie is lazy. But there's nothing in that line of reasoning that says lazy students should be kicked out of school. The conclusion doesn't follow.

28 Wand Cheng-jun II. Detailed study of the text:  title -- humorous/ well chosen 1. When "fallacy" is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means:  There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love.  Love has delusive qualities

29 Wand Cheng-jun Detailed study of the text: 2. When "fallacy" is having logical sense, it means :  Love cannot be deduced from a set of given premises.  Love can not follow the given rules.  Love is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.

30 Wand Cheng-jun Detailed study of the text:  Fallacy: a false or mistaken idea  It is a fallacy to suppose that riches always bring happiness.  Love is a fallacy:  1. There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love.  2. Love is an error, a deception that does not fellow the principle of love

31 Wand Cheng-jun Charles Lamb (1775-1834) English essayist and critic who is now best known for his "Essays of Elia" (1823,1833). He collaborated with his sister Mary in adapting Shakespeare's plays into stories for children. "Tales from Shakespeare" "Specimens of English Dramatic Poets"

32 Wand Cheng-jun Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188) English author, Scottish writer He influenced social thinking about the new industrial working class through his essay "Chartism" and his book “ The Present and the Past ”. He is best known for his epic history of “ The French Revolution ” 1837 and his lectures “ On Heroes and Hero-Workshop ” 1841

33 Wand Cheng-jun Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-1881)  He produced Sartor Resartus 1833-34, the book in which he first developed his characteristic style and thought. This book is a veiled Sardonic (scornful 挖 苦的 ) attack upon the shams and pretences of society, upon hollow rank, hollow officialism, hollow custom, out of which life and usefulness have departed.

34 Wand Cheng-jun Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-1881)  Carlyle developed a peculiar style of his own which was called --- "Carlyese" "Carlylism"  Style -- a compound of biblical phrases colloquialisms Teutonic (条顿的,日尔曼的) twists his own coinings arranged in unexpected sequences.

35 Wand Cheng-jun John Ruskin -- (1819-1900)  *5image-1Ruskin*  English critic and social theorist  a writer on art and architecture  In his later writings he attacked social and economic problems  Modern Painters  The Stones of Venice  The Seven Lamps of Architecture  Time and Tide

36 Wand Cheng-jun John Ruskin -- (1819-1900)  Positive program for social reforms:  Sesame and Lilies (芝麻和百合)  The Crown of Wild Olive  The King of the Golden River

37 Wand Cheng-jun Detailed study of the text:  Enterprising: energetic, initiative  In a month of Sundays: in a long time  Unfetter: free from fetter, to set free or keep free from restrictions or bonds.  Limp: drooping, having lost stiffness, rigidity  Flaccid: Lacking firmness and resilience, flabby  spongy: soft and porous *

38 Wand Cheng-jun Detailed study of the text:  Pedantic:  Characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book learning and formal rules  迂腐的, 乏味  a pedantic attention to details. 学究式地注意细枝末节  a pedantic style of writing; 学究式的写作风格;  an academic insistence on precision; 一种学院式的苛求精神;  donnish refinement of speech; 学究式的雅语;  scholastic and excessively subtle reasoning. 学究式且过于机巧的推理 *

39 Wand Cheng-jun Implication: My writing is even more informal. I can do better than them. He says this only with his tongue in cheek.

40 Wand Cheng-jun What is his purpose of writing this essay? He compared logic to a living thing ( a human being). Logic is not at all a dry learned branch of learning. It is like a living human being, full of beauty, passion and painful emotional shocks.

41 Wand Cheng-jun trauma – a term in psychiatry meaning a painful emotional experience.  Trauma: A painful emotional experience, wound or shock that creates substantial, lasting damage to the psychological development of a person, often leading to neurosis.

42 Wand Cheng-jun Author ’ s note  1) His own idea about his own essay.  From his point of view, his essay is sth limp, spongy. It is very informal.  2) His own idea about the purpose of that essay.  It is not a dry branch of learning, but like a human being.

43 Wand Cheng-jun Para 4  Introduction of the narrator --- a law student Notice the way he introduced himself "boasting"

44 Wand Cheng-jun keen –  (of the mind) active, sensitive, sharp ( syn. nimble, quick, adroit prompt, sharp smart swift) 敏捷 的,敏锐的 ~ sight 敏锐的视力 ~ intelligence 敏捷的智力

45 Wand Cheng-jun calculating -- coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself.

46 Wand Cheng-jun perspicacious --- fml. quick to judge and understand 敏于判 断与了解, 敏捷 having or showing keen judgment and understanding

47 Wand Cheng-jun acute, astute  acute-- (senses, sensation, intellect)  五官,感受,智力 able to notice small differences Dogs have an acute sense of smell.  astute -- shrewd, quick at seeing how to gain an advantage clever and able to see quickly sth, that is to one's advantage. 精明的,狡黠的

48 Wand Cheng-jun Dynamo; Scalpel  Dynamo: generator  Scale: standard in measurement  Scalpel: A small, straight knife with a thin, sharp blade used in surgery and dissection.

49 Wand Cheng-jun comparison  His brain – 1. dynamo -- powerful 2. a chemist's scales--- precise, accurate 3. scalpel -- penetrating

50 Wand Cheng-jun Para.5  introduction of the first antagonist – Petey Burch He downgrades his roommate.  nothing upstairs -- (Am. slang) empty-headed

51 Wand Cheng-jun unstable  unstable -- easily moved, upset or changed  emotional -- having feelings which are strong or easily moved

52 Wand Cheng-jun impressionable -- easy to be influenced, often with the result that one's feeling and ideas change easily and esp. that one is ready to admire other people.

53 Wand Cheng-jun fad -- a style etc that interests many people for a short time, passing fashion. Faddist:a person who always follows fashion with craze

54 Wand Cheng-jun negation --- the lack or opposite of sth. positive, The opposite or absence of something regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative.  Reason --- the ability to think, draw conclusions Fads / passing fashions, in my opinion, show a complete lack of reason.

55 Wand Cheng-jun to be swept up in -- to be carried away by follow enthusiastically

56 Wand Cheng-jun idiocy -- great foolishness or stupidity

57 Wand Cheng-jun pound -- to hit hard to deliver heavy, repeated blows

58 Wand Cheng-jun Charleston  *5image-2* -- a quick spirited dance of the 1920's, in 4/4 time, characterized by a twisting step.

59 Wand Cheng-jun Raccoon -- 浣熊 the fur of a small, tree climbing mammal of N. America, having yellowish gray fur and a black, bushy ringed tail. 呈环状花纹的尾巴 *5image-3raccoon*

60 Wand Cheng-jun incredulously -- showing disbelief, unbelieving an incredulous look/ smile

61 Wand Cheng-jun in the swim -- knowing about and concerned in what is going on in modern life. active in or conforming to current fashions

62 Wand Cheng-jun mixed metaphor: 1. brain -- a precision instrument 2. brain -- a machine that has gears

63 Wand Cheng-jun gear--- any of several arrangements, esp. of toothed wheels in a machine, which allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power, speed or direction of movement.

64 Wand Cheng-jun gear--- bottom gear top gear low ---- in a car which is used for starting high --- for going fast

65 Wand Cheng-jun gear--- If you say that a person, system, or process is in a particular gear, you are talking about the speed, energy, or efficiency with which they are working or functioning.  eg. It took time to shift back into normal gear for boring routine tasks.  She knew how to change gear in order to achieve the right result.  The Chinese economy will be in high gear.

66 Wand Cheng-jun stroke –  pass the hand over gently, esp. for pleasure The cat likes to be stroked. (over the surface of )

67 Wand Cheng-jun He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. P22  He didn ’ t really own Polly, or Polly didn ’ t really belong to him. He meant they were not married or going steady. But they were friends so Petey had the first claim or privilege of first asking Polly to be his wife.  Notice the deliberate use of “ it ”, showing the narrator ’ s attitude towards Polly. It maybe refers to a property or wealth, which can be possessed by sb before appropriation.

68 Wand Cheng-jun Para. 23  the introduction of the second antagonist

69 Wand Cheng-jun cerebral –  (fml, humor) 理智的 1. of the brain 2. intellectual, excluding the emotions tending to or showing (too much) serious thinking

70 Wand Cheng-jun gracious --- polite kind pleasant What are the specifications of his future wife?  1. beautiful  2. gracious  3. intelligent

71 Wand Cheng-jun Pin-up Proportions  Pin-up: (American colloquialism) designating a girl whose sexual attractiveness makes her a subject for the kind of pictures often pinned up on walls.  Proportions: lines, shape of body

72 Wand Cheng-jun carriage --- (sing) the manner of carrying oneself, bearing the manner of holding one's head, limbs, and body when standing or walking. physical aspects of persons bearing 体态, 仪态 Dancing can improve the carriage. 舞蹈能增进体 态美。

73 Wand Cheng-jun deportment -- fml. 1. Br.E the way a person, esp. a young lady, stands and walks 2. Am.E the way a person, esp, a young lady, behaves in the company of others

74 Wand Cheng-jun bearing -- manner of holding one's body or way of behaving ( physical /mental posture )举止,仪态 She has a very modest bearing. 她举止淑静。

75 Wand Cheng-jun breeding ---  polite social behavior

76 Wand Cheng-jun makings -- qualities, the possibility of developing into 素 质 He has the makings of a good doctor. He has in him the makings of a great man.

77 Wand Cheng-jun pot roast --- a piece of beef cooked only with a little water after having been made brown by cooking in hot fat.

78 Wand Cheng-jun dipper –  a long-handled cup esp for dipping  a dipper of sauerkraut -- a small cupful of pickled chopped cabbage  veer -- change in direction, shift, turn

79 Wand Cheng-jun arrangement  The act or process of arranging

80 Wand Cheng-jun go steady -- (Am. coll.) to date sb of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively; be sweetheart

81 Wand Cheng-jun Field ;open  Field: an area where games or athletic events are held.  Open: free to take part or compete in (games being held in the field).

82 Wand Cheng-jun wink -- v. n. v. to close and open (one eye) rapidly, usu, as signal between people, esp of amusement  He winked at her and she knew he was only pretending to be angry. n. a winking movement  He left the room with a wink of the eye.  She gave me a wink.

83 Wand Cheng-jun mince –  to lessen the force of, weaken, as by euphemism If you do not mince your words, you tell sb sth, unpleasant without making any effort to be polite or to avoid upsetting them. I never mince words, you know that. 直言不讳

84 Wand Cheng-jun torn---  tear---destroy the peace of to divide with doubt, uncertainty, agitate, torment He was agitated and torn, not knowing what was the right thing to do. a heart torn by grief

85 Wand Cheng-jun swivel --- v. move round The chair swiveled to the right when he tried it. 1) If you swivel or swivel round, you turn round quickly, especially when you are in a sitting position. 2) If you swivel your head or eyes in a particular direction, you turn your head or eyes in that direction, so that you can look at sth.

86 Wand Cheng-jun wax –  increase in strength, size/ grow, extend, enlarge

87 Wand Cheng-jun wane –  decrease, fail, diminish, sink If sth waxes and wanes, it first increases and then decreases over a period of time. eg. My feelings for John wax and wane.  The popularity of the film stars waxed and waned.

88 Wand Cheng-jun comply –  act on a accordance with a request, order etc.

89 Wand Cheng-jun mound  A raised mass, as of hay; a heap.

90 Wand Cheng-jun bunch –  collect, gather in bunches (here) stand up

91 Wand Cheng-jun Deal  -- an arrangement to the advantage of both sides, often in business bargain, transaction

92 Wand Cheng-jun loom --- appear 朦胧出现 to come into sight without a clear form, esp. in a way that appears very large and unfriendly, causing fear. If sth. looms, it appears as a problem or event that is approaching, or that will soon happen, a rather literary use. eg. This looms as a big question for many new parents.

93 Wand Cheng-jun no small  Understatement---Restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect.. 保守的陈述, 掩 饰  litotes --- A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite, as in: This is no small problem. 曲言法, 间接表达法, 反语法 ( 以反面的 否定代替肯定的词格, 如 :no easy 代替 very difficult, not bad 代替 very good 等 )

94 Wand Cheng-jun dimension -- a measurement in any one direction, extent

95 Wand Cheng-jun wow-dow -- (interjection) an exclamation of surprise, wonder, pleasure etc

96 Wand Cheng-jun wince -- to move suddenly as if drawing the body away from sth unpleasant She winced as she touched the cold body. She winced (mentally) at his angry words.

97 Wand Cheng-jun chirp -- make the short sharp sounds of small birds or some insects, say or speak in a way that sounds like this. She chirped (out) her thanks.

98 Wand Cheng-jun doom -- cause to experience or suffer sth unavoidable and unpleasant such as death or destruction From the start, the plan was doomed to failure (to fail). We are doomed to unhappiness. He was doomed to be killed in a car crash.

99 Wand Cheng-jun -- proof –  resistant to, make to give protection against fire-proof waterproof watch a bullet-proof car a sound-proof room

100 Wand Cheng-jun metaphor: Polly's mind -- the extinct crater of a volcano  extinct -- no longer burning Her Intelligence -- embers ( ashes of a dying fire) 余烬

101 Wand Cheng-jun crater --- the round bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano

102 Wand Cheng-jun ember -- (usu. pl.)  a red-hot piece of wood or coal esp, in a fire that is no longer burning with flames.

103 Wand Cheng-jun admittedly -- by admission or general agreement  confessedly

104 Wand Cheng-jun prospect -- future probabilities based on present indications or analyses

105 Wand Cheng-jun hope -- based on desire, with or without any likelihood that the hoped for will happen or materialize Parents have high hopes for their children. A man saves money in the hope that inflation will not wipe it out.

106 Wand Cheng-jun appeal -- to make a strong request for help, support, mercy, beg He appealed to his attacker for mercy.

107 Wand Cheng-jun blue-prints -- a photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house. The plans for improving the educational system have only reached the blueprint stage so far.

108 Wand Cheng-jun pitchblende -- n. 沥青油矿 a dark shiny substance dug from the earth, from which uranium and radium are obtained.  fracture -- break, crack, split

109 Wand Cheng-jun hypothesis -- an idea which is thought suitable to explain the facts about sth. an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct. eg. People have proposed all kinds of hypothesis about what these things are.

110 Wand Cheng-jun cute – 1. clever, shrewd 2. pretty, attractive, esp in a dainty way

111 Wand Cheng-jun debate -- argue formally, usually under the control of a referee and according to a set of regulations. The House of Commons debated the proposal for three weeks.

112 Wand Cheng-jun argue -- general word a reasoned presentation of views or a heated exchange of opinion amounting to a quarrel They argued vociferously over who should pay the bill.

113 Wand Cheng-jun argue  The MP argued his position with such cogency and wit that even his opponents were impressed.  这个议员对自己的主张进行如此有说服力和机智 的辩论,使他的对手也对此留下深刻地印象。

114 Wand Cheng-jun hamstring –  to cut the hamstring destroying the ability to walk a cord-like tendon at the back of the leg, joining a muscle to a bone  claw-- scratch, clutch, as with claws (nails)  scrape -- scratch, cut the surface of slightly

115 Wand Cheng-jun Over and over …  Over and over again I gave examples and pointed out the mistakes in her thinking. I kept emphasizing all this without stopping.  to hammer away – to keep emphasizing or talking about  let-up – stopping, relaxing

116 Wand Cheng-jun She was a fit …  Here the narrator described the role which he thinks, a wife should play.  well-heeled : (American slang) rich, prosperous

117 Wand Cheng-jun fashion -- v. to shape or make (sth) into or out of sth. usually with one's hands or with only a few tools  ~ a hat out a leaves  ~ some leave into a hat

118 Wand Cheng-jun The time had come …  The time had come to change our relationship from that of teacher and student to that of lovers. academic: scholastic; educational; of students,teachers. romantic: of lovemaking or courting

119 Wand Cheng-jun constellation -- a group of fixed stars often having a name  Languish -- become or be lacking in strength or will  shambling -- walking awkwardly, dragging the feet

120 Wand Cheng-jun hulk –  a heavy, awkward person

121 Wand Cheng-jun surge -- 1) move esp. forward, in or like powerful waves.  The crowd surged past him. 2) (of feeling) to arise powerfully  Anger surged (up) within him.

122 Wand Cheng-jun darn -- damn (euph) adv. used for giving force to an expression, good or bad a ~ fool He ran damn fast.

123 Wand Cheng-jun croak --  speak with a rough voice as if one has a sore throat, utter in a deep, hoarse tone.

124 Wand Cheng-jun playful--- A playful action or remark is light-hearted and friendly rather than serious or hostile.

125 Wand Cheng-jun That did it. -- That was the final straw. That made me lose my patience. That make me lose my self-control This idiomatic phrase is used very often in English and the meaning depends largely on the context in which it is used.

126 Wand Cheng-jun That did it. -- "that" -- what has gone before "Polly's last answer" "it" -- the result or consequence brought about by "that"

127 Wand Cheng-jun bellow -- roar with a reverberating sound as a bull cry out loudly, as in anger

128 Wand Cheng-jun reel back -- step away suddenly and unsteadily, as after a blow or shock When she hit him, he reeled back and almost fell.

129 Wand Cheng-jun overcome -- be overwhelmed If you are overcome by a feeling, you feel it very strongly I was overcome by a sense of failure. He was overcome with astonishment.

130 Wand Cheng-jun infamy – wicked behavior, public dishonor, being shameful/ disgraceful  infamous – well known for wicked, evil behavior. infamous action, wicked, shameful, disgraceful

131 Wand Cheng-jun rat -- metaphor (Am. sl.) used for describing a sneaky, contemptible person.

132 Wand Cheng-jun modulate – adjust, vary the pitch, intensity of the voice Some people are able to modulate their voices according to the size of the room in which they speak.

133 Wand Cheng-jun jitterbug -- 1. a quick active popular dance of the 1940's 2. a person who did this sort of dance Am. sl.  a person who is very nervous jitters -- n. jittery -- adj. nervous, unstable

134 Wand Cheng-jun Frankenstein  The young student in Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-- 1851) romance of that name (1818), a classic horror story. Frankenstein made a soulless monster out of corpses from church-yards and dissecting-rooms and endued (赋予) it with life by galvanism. (流电疗法) The tale shows the creature longed for sympathy, but was shunned ( 躲避 ) by everyone and became the instrument of dreadful retribution (惩罚) on the student who usurped the prerogative (特权) of the creator 

135 Wand Cheng-jun The main idea of this lesson:  It is about a law student who tries to marry the girl after suitable re-education, but he's been too clever for his own good.  The narrator, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the protagonist

136 Wand Cheng-jun Protagonist: a law school student very young clever over-conceited -- cool, logical, keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, astute,  powerful, precise, penetrating

137 Wand Cheng-jun Antagonists 1. Petey Burch -- pitiful, dump, roommate, faddist 2. Polly Espy --- beautiful, gracious, stupid

138 Wand Cheng-jun 短语 (Expressions)  nothing upstairs : (Am . slang) empty-headed ; a nitwit 没头脑的,愚笨的  in the swimming : conforming to the current fashion 赶 时髦 例: She is always involved in the swim .她总是追求 时髦。 get one ’ s hands on : to obtain sth .得到,获得 例: They all want to get their hands on my money .他们都觊觎我的钱。 go steady : to date someone of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively . be sweethearts 约会,成为关 系确定的情侣  例: When did you go steady with her? 你和她是什么时 候确定恋爱关系的 ?

139 Wand Cheng-jun 短语 (Expressions)  out of the picture : not considered as involved in a situation 不相干的, 不合适的 例: “ Is Pam still with Eric? ” “ No , he ’ s out of the picture. ”“ 帕姆还在 跟埃里克在一起吗 ? ”“ 没有,他们已经互不相干了。 ”  get at : seem to be saying sth . that other people d0 not completely understand 暗示 例: What exactly are you getting at? 你到底在暗示什么 ?  have … at one ’ s finger tips : to be completely familiar with ;精通 例: We have all the facts and figures at our fingers .我们已经掌握 了所有的事实和数字。  go far : to accomplish much : achieve much success 成功,大有前途 例: Ginny ’ s a smart girl . and I ’ m sure she ’ d go far .吉尼是个聪明 的姑娘,我相信她会成功的。

140 Wand Cheng-jun 短语 (Expressions  knock out : to elicit enthusiasm or an emotional response , esp . deep sympathy or laughter 使高兴,使情 绪激动 例: The music was just brilliant it really knocked me out .这音乐太美妙了 —— 它真让我激动。 fire away : begin; start; esp. to talk or ask questions 开始谈话或提问 例: “ I have some question. ” “ Fire away. ”“ 我有问 题。 ”“ 请问。 ” hammer away (at) : to keep emphasizing or talking about 一再强调 例: He kept hammering away at his demand for a public inquiry .他一再强调需要进行公众调查。 month of Sundays : (colloq . )long time 很久,很长的时 间

141 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  4 sections  Sect. I para 1-3 It is the author's note. 1. The author's idea about this story. 2. The author's idea about the purpose of this story.

142 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  Sect II para. 4 --59  the bargain between the law student and his roommate over the exchange of the girl,

143 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  sub-divisions: 1) p4 introduction of the narrator -- protagonist 2) p5-21 introduction of the first antagonist -- Petey Burch  He downgrades his roommate, who has nothing upstairs. 3) p22 -- 27 introduction of he second antagonist -- Polly Espy

144 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern 4) p 28--40 sounding out / finding out the relationship between Petey and Polly. 5) p.40 --59 unethical transaction over Polly  The student gives the raccoon coat the roommate wants, and his roommate gives his girl friend in return. They have a kind of deal.

145 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  Sect III. para 60 -- 124 the teaching of 8 logical fallacies  10 sub-divisions:  1. p60 --61 a survey, first date with the girl, first impression of the girl. He tries to find out how stupid she is.

146 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  2. p62 -- 74 the teaching of Dicto Simpliciter  3. P75 -- 79 the teaching of Hasty Generalization  4. p80--85 Post Hoc  5. p86 --96 Contradictory Premises  6. p97--98 interposition, He wants to give the girl back.

147 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  7. p99 --104 Ad Misericordiam  8. p105--108 False Analogy  9. p109-- 114 Hypothesis Contrary to Fact  10.p 115--124 Poisoning the Well

148 Wand Cheng-jun III. Organizational Pattern  Sect.IV. para125 – the ending of the story backfiring of all the arguments The girl learns her lessons too well. She uses all the logical fallacies to fight back her teacher.

149 Wand Cheng-jun Pay attention to the change of his emotions:  1. favoring her with a smile  2. chuckled with amusement  3. chuckled with somewhat less amusement  4. forcing a smile/ ground my teeth  5. croaked, dashed perspiration from my brow  6. bellowing like a bull

150 Wand Cheng-jun IV. The chief attraction of this lesson  It's humor The whole story is a piece of light, humorous satire, satirizing a smug, self-conceited freshman in a law school.

151 Wand Cheng-jun IV. the chief attraction of this lesson  Why : 1) the title  The title is humorous. The writer wants the readers to conclude that "love" is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.

152 Wand Cheng-jun IV. the chief attraction of this lesson 2) the author's note  "spongy", "limp", "flaccid" are specific characteristics of his essay. He is joking, which indicates that the whole story is humorous. 3) the contrast --  the law student & the girl & Petey  boasting himself ----- downgrading the others  the student ---- the girl

153 Wand Cheng-jun IV. the chief attraction of this lesson 4) the ending of the story  the raccoon coat which the law student despises and give it to his roommate for the exchange of his girl friend has finally become the rootcause of his losing his girl friend. 5) the clever choice of the names  Pettey ---- pity  Espy ---- I spy

154 Wand Cheng-jun V. Language features:  1. American colloquialism  2. Informal style short sentences elliptical sentences --- to increase the tempo of the story dashes  3. rhetorical devices

155 Wand Cheng-jun V. Language features:  4. sharp contrast in the language 1) the law student uses ultra learned terms  standard English  100% correct 2) clipped vulgar forms, slang words  gee, magnif, terrif, pshaw,  5. inverted sentences

156 Wand Cheng-jun V. Language features:  What effect does the language have on the readers: 1. vivid 2. colorful 3. informal

157 Wand Cheng-jun Type of writing  This text is a piece of narrative writing. The narrator of the story, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the hero or protagonist. He struggles against two antagonists: Petey Burch, his roowmmate whose girl friend he plans to steal; and Polly Espy, the girl he intends to marry after suitable re- education.The climax of the story is reached in paras 147-150 when Polly refuses to go steady with the narrator because she had already promised to go steady with Petey Burch. The denouement follows rapidly and ends on a very ironic note.

158 Wand Cheng-jun The summary of the story  This text is a piece of narrative writing, a story. The narrator of the story, Dobie Gill is a freshman in a law school, is the hero or protagonist. He struggles against two antagonist: Petey Burch, his roommate whose girl friend he plans to steal; and Polly Espy, the girl he intends to marry after suitable re-education. Dobie tried very hard to persusde Petey to exchange a raccoon coat with his girl. Then Dobie had several dates with Polly, with the view to educate her to meet the requirements for an ideal wife.

159 Wand Cheng-jun The summary of the story  The story reached its climax when Polly refuses to go steady with the narrator because she had already promised to go steady with Petey Burch, simply because Petey owned a raccoon coat, a coat that all fashionable people on campus were wearing. The raccoon coat which he gave to Petey Burch for the privilege of dating his girl. The story ends with a very ironic tone.

160 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  1. Fads enjoy very brief popularity, which fashions are likely to be longer-lasting. Also, "fad" has a pejorative connotation. A fad is a cheap sort of fashion, somewhat debased. To be described as fashionable is a compliment. However, to be swayed by fads is to show a weakness for sudden and brief trends.

161 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  2. "Incredible" means unbelievable. It comes from the Latin "in" (not), and "credibitis"(credible). "Incredulous" means disbelieving or skeptical. It is not as strong as "incredible"

162 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  3. "Eager ” suggests strong interest or desire. "Passionate" is nearly the same but generally is used in a more intense way, to express a degree of emotion slightly greater than "eager".  4. "Feeling" and “ Emotions" are often considered interchangeable, though "emotions" is often considered the stronger word.

163 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  5. "Revealed" is the better word here, with its connotation of making known what has been kept secret. "Showed" is a more general word and, while acceptable, is not as precise.

164 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  6. To be "inclined" is to be disposed to do something, to have a tendency. To be tempted is to be attracted to something in a strong way, though again these two words are very close in meaning, I would rate "tempted" as the stronger verb.

165 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  7. "Exasperation" is extreme annoyance or irritation. "Disappointed" indicates a degree of frustration less extensive than "exasperation". Again the author has chosen the stronger of the alternatives.

166 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  8. “ Tolerant ” here implies endurance of Polly ‘ s faults, an ability to endure her stupidity. “ Indulgent ” means lenient( 宽大的 ), forgiving, and the inner pain and difficulty implied by "tolerant “

167 Wand Cheng-jun Exercise  9. “ Merriment ” is gay conviviality (欢乐), and hilarity (欢闹). It is a much stronger word than "amusement", which refers to being pleased or entertained. Amusement is not so strong an emotion as merriment.  10. “ Languish ” means to become weak or feeble, to become listless. “ To suffer a lot ” is a vague, broad term. “ Languish ” is a better word in this case.

168 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  1. It's humorous, thanks to the word "fallacy", one commonly used in logic. The tale not only gives us a clue of the nature of our narrator's passion, but reflects on the fallacy of his own love for Polly and fallacy in his seemingly well-wrought plan.

169 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  2. Para 4 is a good example of the author's attitude toward himself. The audacious (brave) pride is so great that we can quickly see it is a parody. The author realizes that at 18 he felt smarter than he really was -- he was blind to his own ignorance. He makes fun of himself throughout.

170 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  3. Its purpose is to entertain in a light-hearted way. There is no pretence to teaching us anything, but simply to give us a few chuckles. This is hinted at in the author's note.  4. Polly ‘ s language is trendy( 时髦的 ), inane (空洞 的), vulgar (粗俗的), and meaningless. It illustrates, until the end of the story. It shows the limits of her weak mind.

171 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  5. The narrator has learned logic as a subject in school, when he tries to apply his knowledge to real life, he fails miserably. He sees what goes on in the classroom is divorced from real life. He tries to make Polly forget the fallacies he had taught her.  6. The topic sentence is "He was a torn man". This idea is developed by a series of details that describe Petey's confused state.

172 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  7. Because he begged Polly's love, which was refused. He was going to get the same result as Frankenstein, who created a monster that destroyed him, not as Pygmalion, who was loved by the beautiful statue he had fashioned. The narrator's allusions come naturally, from his experience. He has probably read Pygmalion and Frankenstein for a college course, so the allusions do seem apt.

173 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  8. When the narrator finally succeeds in teaching Polly, she learns logic too well and turns it against him after his declaration of love. In her decision to choose Petey she had used the logic the narrator taught her. Had he not given away his raccoon coat and taught her logic lessons he might have had Polly as his own. The irony is that he succeeded to well.

174 Wand Cheng-jun Ex. III.  keen -- It suggests unusual ability or perceptiveness adding to them a vigorous forceful ability to grass complex problem 1. The keen ears of the dog heard the sound long before we did. 2. He exercised keen judgment to rescue the drowning.  他当机立断,救出了那个溺水儿童。

175 Wand Cheng-jun calculating -- It means coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself 有心计,精明的 He was regarded as a calculating man. To Kate, calculating and cold, the most important thing was power.

176 Wand Cheng-jun perspicacious -- fml. It suggests one has or shows an unusual power or ability of keen judgment and understanding 敏锐, 颖悟 Tom's understanding to the matter is ~.  汤姆对这件事的理解很透彻、敏锐。

177 Wand Cheng-jun perspicacious -- fml These were the fundamental difficulties, but few men were perspicacious enough to appreciate them.  这些是基本的困难,但是没有几个人能敏锐地意 识到它们。

178 Wand Cheng-jun acute -- It suggests a sensitivity and receptivity to the small differences that was not notices by others, also implies a high-keyed state of nervous attention that will not be lasting. He is an acute observer and thinker.

179 Wand Cheng-jun astute -- It means clever and having a thorough or deep understanding, stemming from a scholarly or experienced mind that is full command of a given field. 狡猾的;诡计多端  He is astute and capable. 他精明强干。  They are astute financiers. 他们是一些诡计多端的金融家。

180 Wand Cheng-jun intelligent  聪明,明智 理解力,认识,学习 He was intelligent enough to turn off the gas when he was out. He was intelligent enough to understand my meaning form my gestures

181 Wand Cheng-jun bright ---  (学习,理解力)聪明,心思灵敏,反应快 He is a bright child, as you can tell when you talk with him.

182 Wand Cheng-jun brilliant ---  才华出众,卓越的,能力与理解力 stronger than bright he was considered as a brilliant speaker.  他是公认的卓越的演说家。

183 Wand Cheng-jun alert --- 动作灵敏 A sparrow is very alert in its movement.  clever, bright, smart --- more colloquial  clever --- bright, skillful, having a quick mind  smart -- (AmE)

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