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Policies Aimed at Demographic Causes of Undernutrition Text extracted from: The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2004

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Presentation on theme: "Policies Aimed at Demographic Causes of Undernutrition Text extracted from: The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2004"— Presentation transcript:

1 Policies Aimed at Demographic Causes of Undernutrition Text extracted from: The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2004

2 Reduced Population Growth results in more food per person A successful policy to reduce population growth –Will result in lower food prices –And lower food quantity But the drop in population growth –Reduces demand more than the drop in food quantity Thus food availability per person increases

3 Rapid Population Growth Problems: –Prices Increase –Education more difficult –Capital/person drops –Inequity increases All increase undernutrition –Children hurt most –Thus reducing family size important Need to speed up demographic transition

4 How to hasten demographic transition Increase income –But initially may have more children –Pensions mean: need to have fewer children Increase Education –Especially of women Increases employment Increases family planning Increase Health Care –Reduces infant mortality Thus need to have fewer children

5 Pronatalist Public Policy Old policies that promote having children –When many children died from Wars Famines Infectious Diseases –Common throughout world Tax Deductions Unlimited subsidized maternity leave Child care subsidies Need new policies to favor small families

6 Incentives for small families Tea Estates, India –Maternity and child benefits paid by Tea Estate But mothers receive retirement for each month do not have children –Retirement account is charged if have 3 or more children To pay for maternity and child benefits

7 Disincentives for large families China one child policy –if sign contract to have only one child Receive Glory Certificate –Priority child care –Priority medical care –Priority admission to schools –Increased income –Larger housing –If have 2 kids Must return benefits Income reduced –If have 3 kids Increased sanctions

8 Population projection for China

9 Fertility Rates Higher marriage age –Fertility reduced 1.4 child Increased contraception use –Fertility reduced 4.5 child Induced abortion –Fertility reduced.5 child Reduced breast feeding –Fertility increased 1.5 child Contraceptive use, Cambodia t/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=8690

10 Family Planning Many women want to limit their family –May have limited access to family planning t/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=8690 Desire for children among married women, Cambodia


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