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LAND EXPLORERS CHAPTER 4. Lewis and Clark Expedition Most important event in Pacific Northwest history Most important event in Pacific Northwest history.

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Presentation on theme: "LAND EXPLORERS CHAPTER 4. Lewis and Clark Expedition Most important event in Pacific Northwest history Most important event in Pacific Northwest history."— Presentation transcript:

1 LAND EXPLORERS CHAPTER 4

2 Lewis and Clark Expedition Most important event in Pacific Northwest history Most important event in Pacific Northwest history

3 What made the Lewis and Clark expedition possible?

4 French Revolution 1789 people of France rebelled against Marie Antoinette and King Louis the XVI 1789 people of France rebelled against Marie Antoinette and King Louis the XVI Both were executed in 1793 Both were executed in 1793 “Reign of Terror” – struggle for control of government-- anarchy “Reign of Terror” – struggle for control of government-- anarchy

5 Napoleon Bonaparte Gains control of France in 1799 Gains control of France in 1799 In 1801 declares himself emperor of French republic In 1801 declares himself emperor of French republic Tries to restore prestige of Charlemagne Tries to restore prestige of Charlemagne 1803 gains control of Louisiana Territory from Spain 1803 gains control of Louisiana Territory from Spain

6 U.S. Foreign Policy change France seen as serious problem for U.S. France seen as serious problem for U.S. Control of New Orleans could hinder trade along Mississippi– main trade route of Western U.S. Control of New Orleans could hinder trade along Mississippi– main trade route of Western U.S.

7 How was the land acquired? Louisiana Purchase Jefferson sent 3 man delegation to Paris to buy Western Florida and New Orleans for maximum of $7 million Jefferson sent 3 man delegation to Paris to buy Western Florida and New Orleans for maximum of $7 million Napoleon offers all of Louisiana for $15 million Napoleon offers all of Louisiana for $15 million Jefferson agrees and buys Louisiana for 3 cents per/acre Jefferson agrees and buys Louisiana for 3 cents per/acre

8 What did Jefferson want Lewis and Clark to accomplish on the trip? 1. C ollect scientific information on plants and animals of region 2. A ccurately map region 3. F ind a river route across America. 4. B ecome friends with Indians of region 5. D etermine extent of Louisiana Purchase 6. S trengthen U.S. claim to PNW

9 What was the Corps of Discovery? Lewis and Clark were leaders Lewis and Clark were leaders Left St. Louis, Missouri on May 14, 1804 Left St. Louis, Missouri on May 14, 1804 Corps of Discovery included 33 men– made whole trip– approx 45 started Corps of Discovery included 33 men– made whole trip– approx 45 started Traveled up Missouri River Traveled up Missouri River

10 Winter Spent winter amongst Mandan Indians at Fort Mandan Spent winter amongst Mandan Indians at Fort Mandan Hired Toussaint Charbonneau as guide and interpreter– worthless hire Hired Toussaint Charbonneau as guide and interpreter– worthless hire Young Shoshone Indian named Sacajawea– wife of Charbonneau-was a more valuable guide Young Shoshone Indian named Sacajawea– wife of Charbonneau-was a more valuable guide

11 Spring 1805 Sent Keelboat back to St. Louis with artifacts and samples collected already Sent Keelboat back to St. Louis with artifacts and samples collected already 33 men leave Fort Mandan and begin travel up the Missouri River 33 men leave Fort Mandan and begin travel up the Missouri River Arrived at Great Falls of Missouri– series of 5 waterfalls Arrived at Great Falls of Missouri– series of 5 waterfalls Took 12 days to portage 18 miles Took 12 days to portage 18 miles

12 Three Forks of Missouri Here is where expedition hoped to meet up with Shoshone Indians Here is where expedition hoped to meet up with Shoshone Indians 3 forks 3 forks Madison River– named after Secretary of State Gallatin River– after secretary of Treasury Jefferson River– President Met up with Shoshones– band was led by Cameawhait– Sacajaweas brother Met up with Shoshones– band was led by Cameawhait– Sacajaweas brother

13 Crossing the Rocky Mountains Traded for horses with Cameawhait Traded for horses with Cameawhait Traveled through pass they called Lemhi Pass Traveled through pass they called Lemhi Pass Hired Indian guide called “Old Toby”—he got them lost in Bitterroot Mountains Hired Indian guide called “Old Toby”—he got them lost in Bitterroot Mountains Came out of mountains starving– had eaten horses, dog, and even candles Came out of mountains starving– had eaten horses, dog, and even candles Nez Perce nursed them back to health– helped them build canoes Nez Perce nursed them back to health– helped them build canoes

14 What happened to the Corps in the Pacific Northwest? Traveled by canoe down the Clearwater River to the Snake River then to the Columbia Traveled by canoe down the Clearwater River to the Snake River then to the Columbia Traveled on Washington side of Columbia— portaged around Celilo Falls Traveled on Washington side of Columbia— portaged around Celilo Falls Finally reached Pacific Ocean in November 1805 Finally reached Pacific Ocean in November 1805

15 Fort Clatsop Established camp at Station Camp on Northern bank of Columbia Established camp at Station Camp on Northern bank of Columbia After series of storms, and lack of success hunting, Corps took advice of local tribes and moved to Southern shore of Columbia After series of storms, and lack of success hunting, Corps took advice of local tribes and moved to Southern shore of Columbia Established Fort Clatsop and remained their winter of Established Fort Clatsop and remained their winter of

16 Return Trip Hoped to meet with trading ship– weather inhibited meeting– 6 clear days in 3 months Hoped to meet with trading ship– weather inhibited meeting– 6 clear days in 3 months Left Clatsop in March Left Clatsop in March Reversed the route of their journey west Reversed the route of their journey west Returned to Nez Perce land and using the horses they had left earlier re-crossed Rocky Mountains– Lewis and Clark Pass Returned to Nez Perce land and using the horses they had left earlier re-crossed Rocky Mountains– Lewis and Clark Pass Expedition split Expedition split Lewis took half and explored Marias River Lewis took half and explored Marias River Clark took rest and explored Yellowstone River Clark took rest and explored Yellowstone River

17 Was the trip successful? Met up at confluence of Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers Met up at confluence of Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers Arrived in St. Louis on September 23, 1806 Arrived in St. Louis on September 23, 1806 Most successful expedition in our history Most successful expedition in our history Met 5 of 6 goals Met 5 of 6 goals Each member of Corps got 320 acres of land Each member of Corps got 320 acres of land Lewis got 1600 and Clark got 1000 acres of land– Lewis refused until Clark got the same Lewis got 1600 and Clark got 1000 acres of land– Lewis refused until Clark got the same

18 After the expedition George Drewyer, John Colter, and John Potts become fur traders George Drewyer, John Colter, and John Potts become fur traders Colter discovers Yellowstone Park– “Colter’s Hell” Colter discovers Yellowstone Park– “Colter’s Hell” Sacajawea supposedly died in 1812– woman claiming to be her died in 1880’s at Wind River Reservation in Wyoming amongst the Shoshones Sacajawea supposedly died in 1812– woman claiming to be her died in 1880’s at Wind River Reservation in Wyoming amongst the Shoshones York– Clark’s slave was freed and became successful freight hauling business York– Clark’s slave was freed and became successful freight hauling business Charles Floyd only man to die on expedition– ruptured appendix Charles Floyd only man to die on expedition– ruptured appendix

19 Lewis Appointed Governor of Louisiana Territory– not a politician Appointed Governor of Louisiana Territory– not a politician Accused of misusing money– had to pay out of pocket Accused of misusing money– had to pay out of pocket On trip to Washington, D.C. died at inn near Natchez Trace– suicide or murder?? On trip to Washington, D.C. died at inn near Natchez Trace– suicide or murder??

20 Clark Made Indian agent for Louisiana Territory and later Governor Made Indian agent for Louisiana Territory and later Governor Compiled maps of Western U.S. throughout career Compiled maps of Western U.S. throughout career Married girl that he named Judith River after– her first name was really Julia Married girl that he named Judith River after– her first name was really Julia

21 British Explorers All were employees of English owned NorthWest Fur Company All were employees of English owned NorthWest Fur Company Most work done in present day British Columbia and Washington Most work done in present day British Columbia and Washington Three employees: Three employees: Alexander MacKenzie Alexander MacKenzie Simon Fraser Simon Fraser David Thompson David Thompson

22 Alexander MacKenzie Looking for source of Columbia River Looking for source of Columbia River Follows river – MacKenzie River– empties too far north Follows river – MacKenzie River– empties too far north Follows and maps Upper Fraser River Follows and maps Upper Fraser River Follows and Maps Bella Coola River Follows and Maps Bella Coola River Becomes first European to walk across North America north of Mexico in 1793 Becomes first European to walk across North America north of Mexico in 1793 Heavy influence on Lewis and Clark Heavy influence on Lewis and Clark

23 Simon Fraser 1806 Discovered main course of Fraser River– empties near present day Vancouver B.C Discovered main course of Fraser River– empties near present day Vancouver B.C.

24 David Thompson Mapped out 1 million square miles of western Canada Mapped out 1 million square miles of western Canada Discovered source of Columbia in 1807 in S.E. British Columbia Discovered source of Columbia in 1807 in S.E. British Columbia 1810-Founded Spokane House-first fur trading post in WA 1810-Founded Spokane House-first fur trading post in WA


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