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Chapter 1 Native Americans

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1 Chapter 1 Native Americans

2 1.2 Migration Routes of the First Americans.
* Migrate- To move from one place and establish a home in a new place. Across a Land Bridge -Ocean levels drop 200 feet due to Ice age 30,000 years ago. -Exposes land bridge between Asia and North America called Beringia. -Animals migrate East to North America over thousands of years. -Hunters follow animals. Migrating East and South -As larger prey die off, hunters become hunter-gatherers, catching small animals, fishing, and collecting edible plants. -Over time, Native Americans head south and eventually spread across the two American continents.

3 Migrating Routes of the First Americans
Page 2 in your book.

4 1.3 Native Americans Adapt to the Environment.
* Environment- All of the physical surroundings in a place, including land, water, animals, plants and climate. * Natural Resources- Useful materials found in nature, including water, vegetation, animals and minerals. * Culture- A people’s way of life, including beliefs, customs, food, dwellings, and clothing. * Cultural Region- An area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language. Using Natural Resources * Native Americans make clothing from animal skins and goggles out of bone. * Live most of the year in houses made from driftwood and animal skins. Make igloos out of blocks of snow in winter. * Learn to raise crops such as squash, peppers, beans and corn. * Enables them to settle in one place and built villages.

5 1.3 Continued… Native American Cultural Regions
* Over generations, groups of Native Americans develop their own cultures. * Forest dwellers often live in houses covered with tree bark. * Desert people make shelters out of branches covered with brush. * Historians identify cultural regions including the Northwest Coast, California, the Great Basin, the Plateau, the Southwest, the Great Plains, the Eastern Woodlands, and the Southeast.

6 1.4 First American’s View of Their Environment.
Nature’s Spirits * Believe that each part of nature has its own spirit. Using the Land * Believe land cannot be owned as private property. * Adapt the land to suit their needs. * Try not to waste anything they take from nature.

7 1.5 Native Americans of the Northwest Coast.
Abundant Food * Region extends from southern Oregon into Canada. * Northwest people build villages along the narrow beaches and bays of the coastline. * They fish, gather clams and shellfish, hunt seals, sea lions and whales from the ocean, and deer, moose, bear, elk and other forest animals from the land. * Build tools such as harpoons, spears, and traps to catch prey. Builders and Carvers * Cut long, thin boards from trees to build large, sturdy houses. * Make roof shingles out of large sheets of cedar bark * Weave baskets, mats, rope and blankets. * Craft decorative shell buttons, animal masks and wooden bowls.

8 1.6 Native Americans of California
Many Sources of Food * Stretches from southern Oregon through Baja California. * Includes coast, coastal foothills, inland valley, deserts, and the western side of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. * Salmon and shellfish abundant along the coast. * Deer, rabbits, ducks and other small animals hunted inland. * Vegetation harvested includes roots, berries, and acorns. Clothing, Houses and Baskets * Make clothing from grasses and other plants, as well as fur and leather from animal hides. * Use bark from redwood trees to build cone-shape houses. * Use plant materials to weave baskets, sifters and fish traps.

9 1.7 Native Americans of the Great Basin.
Extreme Heat and Cold * Low area between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. * Mostly desert. Vegetation includes grasses, sagebrush, and craggy pinon trees. * Temporary shelters made of willow poles covered with brush and reeds. * Clothing made from rabbit hides. Searching for Food * Follow food sources from season to season. * In spring, people camp along rivers. Men hunt for ducks while women gather duck eggs. * In summer, snakes and grasshoppers are caught. Other summer foods include a variety of plant roots and berries. * In autumn jackrabbits are hunted. * Live off of dried foods in winter.

10 1.8 Native Americans of the Plateau
Sturdy Houses and Clothing * Bounded by the Cascade Range to the west, the Rockies to the east, and the Fraser River in Canada to the north. * Dense, forested mountains and flat, drier central area. Long, cold winters with mild summers. * Inhabitants build houses along major rivers, such as the Columbia and Fraser. * Food is so plentiful that many groups able to live in their villages all year long. Fraser River Columbia River

11 1.8 Continued… * Build homes partly underground to stay cool in
summer and warm in winter. Dig pits, line with frame of logs, cover everything with grass and reeds. * Plateau people weave elaborate baskets and hats. * Men hunt antelope and deer in fall. Women scrape and soften hides for dresses,leggings, and shirts. Camas and Salmon * Plateau people rely mostly on fish such as salmon,and plants such as camas, onions and carrots from low grasslands.

12 1.9 Native Americans of the Southwest
Mesa People * Region includes Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah and Colorado, and parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and California. * Many environments-canyons, mountains, deserts, flat-topped mesas. Very hot and dry. * Two major rivers-Colorado and Rio Grande. * Heat and lack of water make living there difficult. * Some groups lived as nomads. Others became farmers along the Colorado River.

13 1.9 Continued… * Without trees for building, the mesa people
make houses from adobe bricks. Thick walls protect them from summer heat and winter cold. * Some pueblo villages have populations as large as 1000 people. * Mesa people wear clothing made of cotton to protect them from the sun. Corn Culture * Mesa people grow corn, beans and squash. * Dig irrigation trenches and build dams to hold and distribute the water to their crops.

14 1.10 Native Americans of the Great Plains
Buffalo Hunters * Region extends from the Rockies to the Mississippi Valley; from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. * Vast grasslands perfect for animals to graze. Western plains tribes follow and hunt buffalo. * Hunting parties ambush buffalo herds, using hardwood bows and wooden arrow tipped with sharp stone. Using the Buffalo * Every part of the buffalo is used. Hides used for clothing, shields, waterproof containers. * Buffalo hair used for bowstrings and ropes. * Skins sewn together and fastened around a tall cone of poles to make dwellings called tipis. * Meat not eaten is dried and kept for winter.

15 1.11 Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands
Plentiful Woods * Region extends from the Mississippi River eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, and from Canada to North Carolina. * Endless forests, lakes and streams. * Two language groups emerge: Algonquian and Iroquois. * Main food supply is deer, bear and small animals. * Iroquois build villages near waterways. * Log-frame houses, called longhouses are about 20x100 feet in size. Many families can live in one house.

16 1.11 Continued… Women Farmers
* Men clear the land by burning away trees and underbrush. * Women do the rest. They plant corn, beans, squash. * Tan deerskins to make skirts and moccasins. * Grind corn into meal. * Harvest crops in fall and store in large bark bins in longhouses. * In addition to corn, beans and squash, crops also include sunflowers,tobacco and other veggies still planted in American gardens today.

17 1.12 Native Americans of the Southeast
Towns built Around Mounds *Stretches from the southern part of the Ohio Valley to the Gulf of Mexico, and from Texas to the Atlantic. * Fertile coastal plains, river valleys, mountains and swamps. * Long, warm, humid summers and mild winters. * Southeastern peoples’ towns dominated by earthen mounds used for burial sites and as platforms for temples. * Rectangular frame houses built with strips of young trees and plastered with clay. Secotan Village

18 1.12 Continued… A Fertile Region
* Long growing season perfect for growing corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, and sunflowers. * Women work the fields. * Men hunt squirrels, rabbits, turkeys, and deer. * Women gather edible plants like potatoes, wild rice, and persimmons. * Clothing is simple and made mostly from deerskins. * Decorative jewelry made from stones, shells, feathers, pearls, bones, and clay.

19 1.13 Summary Ancestors of Native Americans migrate from Asia across a land bridge during the last ice age. Their descendants travel east and south, adapting to the challenges of living in many different environments. They believe that they are a part of nature and treat the environment with respect. Diverse people who speak many languages. Develop different cultures and ways of life. Build first towns and villages in North America, and are the continent’s first farmers.

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