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Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 28.

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 28."— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 28

2 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Africa Becomes Independent

3 Located in capital of Tanzania ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Freedom (Uhuru) Monument at Dar es-Salaam

4 The Colonial Legacy  Benefits  Transportation and communication  Improved sanitation and health care  Political systems contributed to gradual creation of democratic ideas  Benefits varied  Only South Africa and Algeria developed along modern lines  Disadvantages  Concentrate on export crops  Plantation agriculture and cash crops

5 The Rise of Nationalism  Goal was independence  Kwame Nkrumah ( ) formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (Ghana)  Jomo Kenyatta ( ) formed the Kenya African National Union with a political and economic agenda  Mau Mau movement among the Kikuyu people of Kenya used terrorism to achieve uhuru (Swahili for freedom)  African National Congress formed in 1912  Originally dominated by Western-educated intellectuals  Want economic and political reforms including equality for educated Africans

6 The Rise of Nationalism (cont.’d)  Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in mid-1950s -- independence gained in 1958  Struggle in Algeria affected Tunisia that was given independence in 1956  Morocco gained independence in 1956  Ghana (Gold Coast) gained independence in 1957  Followed by Nigeria, Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika (when joined by Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania)  Most French colonies agree to accept independence within the framework of the French Community  By late 1960s only part of southern Africa and Portuguese Mozambique and Angola remained under European rule  Why so slow in gaining independence?  Colonialism was established later in Africa  With only a few exception, coherent states with a strong sense of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic unity did not exist

7 Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa  Most new African leaders come from the urban middle class  Accept the Western model -- capitalism and at least lip service to democracy  Diverse views on economics  Highly nationalistic  Generally accept national boundaries  These were artificial and contained diverse ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups  Organization of African Unity (1966)  Pan-Africanism

8 Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa  Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way to a series of military regimes  Most African countries dependent on export of a single crop or natural resource  In many instances, the resources still controlled by foreigners  “Neocolonialism”  Scarce natural resources spent on military equipment and expensive consumer goods  Bribery and corruption  Population growth  Widespread hunger  HIV and AIDS  Poverty  Effects of urbanization

9 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Present-Day Africa

10 The Search for Solutions  Tanzania  Desire to restrict foreign investment  Arusha Declaration, 1967  Limitations on income and established village collectives  Corruption lower at first  Kenya  Capitalism has had mixed results  Ethnic tensions  Angola and Ethiopia  Experiments in Marxism  South Africa  Apartheid  Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress  South Africa sense the end of Apartheid

11 The Search for Solutions (cont.’d)  Nigeria  Africa’s most populous country  Oil and civil war  Ethnic and religious divisions  Central Africa  Rwanda and Burundi  Zaire/Democratic Republic of the Congo  Good News  The African Union

12 Continuity and Change in Modern Society  Impact of the West  Education  Emphasis on vocational training  Eventual introduction in European languages and Western culture  State run schools: First the emphasis was on primary schools then high school and universities in the urban areas Funding and teachers are scarce in the rural areas  Little Western influence outside the cities  Agriculture and hunting  Migrations to plantations, cities, and refugee camps

13 Located in Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Traditional African House

14 Djibouti, on Red Sea ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. African Women in Colorful Dress

15 African Women  Change in relationship between men and women  Traditional relationships  Independence brought the idea of sexual equality  Politics still dominated mostly by men  Women became a labor force, employed in menial tasks  Education open to all, but women comprise less than 20 percent of the students  Rural women generally still bound by communalism  Traditional practices still found

16 African Culture  Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture  Modern African art  Utility and ritual have given way to pleasure and decoration  Traditional forms of art now more for tourists  Modern African literature  Means to establish black dignity and purpose  Chinua Achebe, first major African novelist to write in English  Writing from native perspective  Shift from the brutality of the foreign oppressor to the shortcomings of the new native leadership  Ngugi Wa Thiong’o (b. 1938), A Grain of Wheat  Wole Soyinka (b. 1934), The Interpreters  Women writers Ama Ata Aidoo (b. 1942), Changes: A Love Story  Music

17 Crescent of Conflict  Militant Islam as a sense of community  September 11, 2001  “Humiliation and disgrace” Modern regimes in Turkey and Iran More traditional in Saudi Arabia European influence and control  The Question of Palestine  Arab League, 1945  Zionists and an independent Jewish state, 1948  Sense of West’s betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states  Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon

18 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Israel and Arab Neighbors,

19 Nasser and Pan-Arabism  King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952  Monarchy replaced by a republic in 1953  General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954  Reforms  Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt U.S. supports Nasser  Pan-Arabism  Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic,1958 Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union UAR ends in 1961  Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 Al-Fatah led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks

20 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Modern Middle East

21 Arab-Israeli Dispute  Growing hostility  Knesset (parliament created)  June, 1967, Six-Day War  Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat ( )  Yom Kippur War, 1973  Camp David Agreement, 1978  Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981  Intifada (uprising) by PLO supporters in Israel, 1980s  Terrorist attacks by Palestinians  Minister Ehud Barak tried to re-start the peace process  Peace process broke down by 2000  Hard-line prime minister, Ariel Sharon  Suicide attacks

22 Revolution in Iran  Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ( ),  Social and economic reforms  Affluent middle class emerging  Land reform  Internal problems  Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini ( )  Shi’ite cleric exiled to Iraq and then France  Shah leaves the country in 1979, and the government collapsed shortly thereafter with a new government dominated by Khomeini  American embassy hostages  Iranian Revolution moderated slightly, but repression returned in mid- 1990s  Mohammad Khatemi, a moderate cleric  Move to a more pluralistic society open to the outside world  Opposition from conservative elements

23 Crisis in the Gulf  Iraq  Saddam Hussein (b. 1937),  War against Iran,  Iraq sends military forces into Kuwait, 1990  United Nations response

24 Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq  Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001  Nation controlled by the Taliban who provided a base for terrorist Osama bin Laden  After September 11, 2001, coalition overthrows the Taliban  United States turned its attention to Iraq  Alleged that there were weapons of mass destruction  War began March, 2003

25 Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East  Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia  Some areas traditional authority replaced by one- party rule or military dictatorships  Other states charismatic rule given way to modernizing bureaucratic regimes  Israel, democratic institutions

26 Economics of Oil  Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate few are wealthy; the difference is oil  Approaches to developing strong and stable economies  Arab socialism  Western capitalist model  Maintaining Islamic doctrine  Agriculture Wealthiest hold much of the land Lack of water Encourage emigration  Why failure of democratic institutions?  Willingness of the West to coddle dictatorships to keep access to oil  Culture of Islam

27 Islamic Revival  Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may be mutually reinforcing  Fundamentalists are a rational and practical response to destabilizing forces and self-destructive practices  Seeking a cultural identity  Reaction to Western influences  Create a “modernized” set of beliefs such as in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran  Secularization Reaction to secularization in Iran where there was a movement to Islamic purity Seeking purity found in Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey  Trend toward Islamic purity

28 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Modern Islam, 1998

29 Women and Islam  Traditional role of women in Islamic societies  Modernist views that Islamic doctrine not opposed to women’s rights  Many restrictions due to pre-Islamic folk traditions that were tolerated in the early Islamic era  More traditional views have prevailed in many Middle Eastern countries  Impact of the Iranian Revolution  Most conservative nation is Saudi Arabia  Rights extended in some countries  Vote in Kuwait  Equal right to seek a divorce in Egypt  Attend university, receive military training, vote, practice birth control, and publish fiction in Iran

30 Literature and Art  Cultural Renaissance  Iran one of the most prolific countries  The veil (chador) a central metaphor in Iranian women’s writing  In Egypt the most illustrious writer is Naguib Mahfouz who wrote Cairo Trilogy  Art  Influenced by Western culture

31 Discussion Questions  What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa?  Why have so many African nations moved toward authoritarianism since independence?  How has Western imperialism contributed to contemporary conflicts in the Middle East?  What are the most important cultural trends in the contemporary Middle East?

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