Presentation on theme: "The Mission Of Phoenix Phoenix was sent to Mars to discover whether water existed on Mars and whether Mars could support life. The mission started when."— Presentation transcript:
The Mission Of Phoenix Phoenix was sent to Mars to discover whether water existed on Mars and whether Mars could support life. The mission started when the Mars probe, Pathfinder, discovered ice in Mars' polar regions. Phoenix was also sent to record the daily weather and temperature on Mars. Phoenix stopped functioning on November 2nd, because there was no longer enough sunlight to power its solar panels. To analyze the weather, it used an instrument called Lidar, a laser, and a meteorological station. In the goal of determining if there is (or ever was) water on Mars it was aided by a Robotic Digging Arm, and by a Soil Chemical Analyzer.
First, a Delta II 7925 rocket was launched, with three stages: eject the fuel canisters; eject the frame; and eject the “nose” of the rocket. Then, eject the rocket. After that, the stabilizers. Then, the rocket thruster gets ejected. Then, the heat shield gets ejected. Then, the outer casing gets ejected, along with the parachute. Then, the rocket boosters activate to lower the lander safely onto the surface of Mars. Finally, Phoenix lands! Then, the solar arrays extend, the meteorological station powers up, the camera activates, Lidar turns on, and the digging arm begins work.
Technology Of Phoenix The main tool of the Phoenix is the Robotic Arm (RA), built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Alliance Spacesystems and Honeybee for the purposes of digging trenches, scooping up soil and water ice samples, and delivering the samples to the TEGA (Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer) and MECA (Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) instruments for detailed chemical and geological analysis. MECA, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a combination of several scientific instruments including a wet chemistry laboratory, optical ad atomic force microscopes, and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC), built by the University of Arizona and Max Planck Institute, Germany, was built to photograph the martian soil while the Robotic Arm takes samples. It was attached just above the scoop. The SSI (Stereo Surface Imager), also built by the University of Arizona, was created to serve as the “eyes” of the Phoenix, providing high-resolution, stereoscopic, panoramic images of the martian arctic. TEGA, built by the University of Arizona and University of Texas, Dallas, is a combination high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument designed to analyze martian ice and soil samples. The Mars Descent Imager (MARDI), built by Malin Space Science Systems, was built to photograph the martian surface during Phoenix’s descent and plays a key scientific role during Phoenix’s descent. MET (Meteorological Station), built by the Canadian Space Agency, was intended to monitor and record the daily weather and temperature on Mars.
SSI=Surface Stereo Imager RAC=Robotic Arm Camera MARDI=Mars Descent Imager TEGA=Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer MECA=Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer WC=Wet Chemistry Experiment M=Microscopy, including the Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope TECP=Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe MET=Meteorological Station
Phoenix’s Goals 1 Goal 1: Determine whether life ever arose on Mars Continuing the Viking missions’ quest, but in an environment known to be water-rich, Phoenix searches for signatures of life at the soil-ice interface just below the Martian surface. Phoenix will land in the arctic plains, where its robotic arm will dig through the dry soil to reach the ice layer, bring the soil and ice samples to the lander platform, and analyze these samples using advanced scientific instruments. These samples may hold the key to understanding whether the Martian arctic is a habitable zone where microbes could grow and reproduce during moist conditions. Goal 2: Characterize the climate of Mars Phoenix will land during the retreat of the Martian polar cap, when cold soil is first exposed to sunlight after a long winter. The interaction between the ground surface and the Martian atmosphere that occurs at this time is critical to understanding the present and the past climate of Mars. To gather data about this interaction and other surface meteorological conditions, Phoenix will provide the first weather station in the Martian polar region, with no others currently planned. Data from this station will have a significant impact in improving global climate models of Mars.
Phoenix’s Goals 2 Goal 3: Characterize the geology of Mars As on Earth, the past history of water is written below the surface because liquid water changes soil chemistry and mineralogy in definite ways. Phoenix will use a suite of chemistry experiments to thoroughly analyze the soil’s chemistry and mineralogy. Some scientists speculate the landing site for Phoenix may have been a deep ocean in the planet’s distant past leaving evidence of sedimentation. If fine sediments of mud and silt are found at the site, it may support the hypothesis of an ancient ocean. Alternatively, coarse sediments of sand might indicate past flowing water, especially if these grains are rounded and well sorted. Using the first true microscope on Mars, Phoenix will examine the structure of these grains to better answer these questions about water’s influence on the geology of Mars. Goal 4: Prepare for human exploration The Phoenix Mission will provide evidence of water ice and assess the soil chemistry in Martian arctic. Water will be a critical resource to future human explorers and Phoenix may provide appreciable information on how water may be acquired on the planet. Understanding the soil chemistry will provide understanding of the potential resources available for human explorers to the northern plains.
Phoenix’s Interplanetary Cruise And Approach To Mars