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Space Exploration Mars Rovers, Apollo program, Voyager satellites, and SETI All Presented by the Peter C Period: 2 (two) As in 1+1=2 Or 2x1=2 ®

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Presentation on theme: "Space Exploration Mars Rovers, Apollo program, Voyager satellites, and SETI All Presented by the Peter C Period: 2 (two) As in 1+1=2 Or 2x1=2 ®"— Presentation transcript:

1 Space Exploration Mars Rovers, Apollo program, Voyager satellites, and SETI All Presented by the Peter C Period: 2 (two) As in 1+1=2 Or 2x1=2 ®

2 The Apollo Program The objective of the Apollo program was to explore the moon. NASA has sent 9 rockets to the moon. Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17, went on the land to take samples of the moon, study soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind, while Apollo 7 & 9 were testing equipment while orbiting Earth. This is picture of the Apollo 11 rocket <----------------

3 The Apollo Program Some of the major milestones that happened during the Apollo program was the Apollo 11. The first human beings on the moon were in that space rocket. Including Neil Armstrong, Edward Aldrin, and Michael Collins. The mission of Apollo 11 lasted 8 days. The Apollo 17 was longest time spent on the moon, 3 days, and also was the last man mission on the moon.

4 The Apollo Program 12 people from the Apollo program have been on the moon 1.Neil Armstrong 2.Buzz Aldrin 3.Pete Conrad 4.Alan Bean 5.Alan Shepard 6.Edgar Mitchell 7.David Scott 8.James Irwin 9.John Young 10.Charles Duke 11.Eugene Cernan 12.Harrison Schmitt

5 The Apollo Program The Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to the moon. The astronauts on the Apollo 11 collected the first samples from another planetary body. The Apollo 14 had to land where the failed Apollo 13 was supposed to go. The Apollo 16 explored the highlands of the moon, a place not yet discovered. Apollo 7 was the first manned test of the Command and Service Module. The crew orbited the Earth 163 times and spent 10 days and 20 hours in space. Apollo 17 was the last Apollo mission to land men on the Moon. It carried only trained geologist to walk on the lunar surface. Eugene Cernan, commander of Apollo 17, still holds record of being the last man to walk on the Moon, as no humans have visited the Moon since December 14, 1972.

6 Mars Rovers The first successful Mars rover was Sojourner. It was launched by NASA on December 4, 1996, and landed July 4, 1997. The Martian rovers discovered that the geology is base on sulfuric rocks and not carbonate rocks as seen on Earth. The atmosphere is a reducing one rather than an oxidizing one as here on Earth and accounts for the orange hue to all the rocks. Water must have flowed in vast quantities in the past but where it is now is still unknown. It may have leaked into space or it may be frozen as super brine beneath the surface. One of the Mars Rovers called Spirit --------->

7 Mars Rovers The Mars Rovers had 7 main mission objectives. 1.Search for and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity. In particular, samples sought will include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, evaporation, sedimentary cementation, or hydrothermal activity. 2.Determine the distribution and composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the landing sites. 3.Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, sedimentation, hydrothermal mechanisms, volcanism, and cratering. 4.Perform "ground truth" -- calibration and validation -- of surface observations made by Mars orbiter instruments. This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit. 5.Search for iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates. 6.Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the processes that created them. 7.Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present. Assess whether those environments were conducive to life.

8 Mars Rovers Launched on December 4, 1996, the Mars Pathfinder Mission was a key part to the overall Mars exploration program. After a seven month trip to the red planet, the lander arrived on the surface on July 4, 1997, and dropped off the first rover on the planet of mars called Sojourner. This rover operated for months, finally ending on September 27. The rover is said to have lost power while trying to connect with NASA. In 2003, 2 more rovers called Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars with the goal of exploring the geology and surface of the planet, while at the same time making explorations of possible water activity in the past. In 2009, Spirit got stuck into a pile of mud and became immobilized, so now it is a stationary scientific laboratory. Fortunately, Rover Opportunity is still functioning.

9 Voyager Satellites The voyager satellites is a series of unmanned space probes. They were launched in 1977. The Voyager 1 was launched on September 5, 1977, while the Voyager 2 was launched on August 20, 1977. Voyager 1 and 2 were to make studies of Jupiter and Saturn. Although launched sixteen days after Voyager 2, Voyager 1's route was a faster path, arriving at Jupiter in March of 1979. Voyager 2 arrived about four months later in July 1979. The spacecraft twins, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, were launched by NASA during the summer of 1977 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

10 Voyager Satellites Today, in a dark, cold, vacant neighborhood at the very edge of our Solar System, NASA's Voyager 1 deep space probe holds the record as the Earth explorer that has traveled farthest from home. The Voyager 1 is very far away from home. 17,293,948,879 kilometers from the Earth. Somewhere in that vast empty space. The Voyager 2 is 14,182,496,539 kilometers from the Earth. The Voyager helped us find more information about Saturn and Jupiter, like how many moons, etc. This is a picture of the Voyager 2 -------------------- 

11 SETI SETI is the search for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence AKA aliens. Many radio frequencies penetrate our atmosphere quite well, and this led to radio telescopes that investigate the cosmos using large radio antennas. Furthermore, the earth emits considerable radio radiation as a byproduct of communications such as TV and radio, and these radiations would be easy to recognize as artificial due to their repetitive nature and narrow bandwidths. If this is typical, one way of discovering an extraterrestrial civilization might be to detect non-natural radio emissions from a location outside our Solar system. So, we would know if there are any aliens in this universe. In the SETI program, we have found nothing.

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