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Mars Invasion: Spirit, Opportunity, Mars Express Meghan McGovern.

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Presentation on theme: "Mars Invasion: Spirit, Opportunity, Mars Express Meghan McGovern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mars Invasion: Spirit, Opportunity, Mars Express Meghan McGovern

2 Mars Express Scheduled to invade Mars Christmas day Scheduled to invade Mars Christmas day Consists of Orbiter and Beagle II Lander Consists of Orbiter and Beagle II Lander ESA mission, although heavily British ESA mission, although heavily British

3 Mars Express Orbiter Seven science instruments on board Seven science instruments on board –High resolution stereo camera (HRSC) –OMEGA Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer –SPICAM Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer –Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) –Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyzer (ASPERA) –Mars Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) –MARSIS sub-surface sounding RADAR altimeter

4 High resolution stereo camera (HRSC) This will image the entire planet in 3-D and in full color with a 10-meter resolution. This will image the entire planet in 3-D and in full color with a 10-meter resolution. The camera can have as good as a 2-meter resolution, reserved for specific areas of the planet. The camera can have as good as a 2-meter resolution, reserved for specific areas of the planet. Since the 2-meter resolution is integrated into the 10-meter resolution, scientists will be able to tell exactly where the Beagle II is located Since the 2-meter resolution is integrated into the 10-meter resolution, scientists will be able to tell exactly where the Beagle II is located

5 OMEGA Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer It will determine mineral composition based on visible and infrared light ranging in wavelengths from 0.5 to 5.2 millimeters. It will determine mineral composition based on visible and infrared light ranging in wavelengths from 0.5 to 5.2 millimeters. Since the reflected light from the surface will be passing through the atmosphere to get to the OMEGA, the instrument will also measure atmospheric composition. Since the reflected light from the surface will be passing through the atmosphere to get to the OMEGA, the instrument will also measure atmospheric composition.

6 SPICAM Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer Will determine composition of the atmosphere from the wavelengths of light absorbed by the gases. Will determine composition of the atmosphere from the wavelengths of light absorbed by the gases. An ultraviolet sensor will measure ozone An ultraviolet sensor will measure ozone An infrared sensor will measure water vapor. An infrared sensor will measure water vapor. Continued use will provide ozone and water vapor information for all the seasons on Mars. Continued use will provide ozone and water vapor information for all the seasons on Mars.

7 Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) Will determine the composition of the Martian atmosphere using the infrared radiation emitted from the Sun and absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere. Will determine the composition of the Martian atmosphere using the infrared radiation emitted from the Sun and absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere. Will also obtain temperature and pressure profile for carbon dioxide, and look for traces of water, carbon monoxide, methane and formaldehyde. Will also obtain temperature and pressure profile for carbon dioxide, and look for traces of water, carbon monoxide, methane and formaldehyde.

8 Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyzer (ASPERA) Will help determine how much atmosphere Mars has lost over its evolution. Will help determine how much atmosphere Mars has lost over its evolution. Will measure outer atmospheric ions, electrons, and atoms to determine numbers of oxygen and hydrogen atoms that are interacting with the solar wind and which regions are more or less active. Will measure outer atmospheric ions, electrons, and atoms to determine numbers of oxygen and hydrogen atoms that are interacting with the solar wind and which regions are more or less active.

9 Mars Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) Will study Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, surface and interior using radio signals to transmit data between the spacecraft and Earth. Will study Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, surface and interior using radio signals to transmit data between the spacecraft and Earth. Interior of Mars will be studied using the planet’s gravitation and the differing velocities of the orbiter relative to Earth. Interior of Mars will be studied using the planet’s gravitation and the differing velocities of the orbiter relative to Earth.

10 MARSIS, sub-surface sounding RADAR altimeter Will map the sub-surface structure to a depth of a few kilometers. Will map the sub-surface structure to a depth of a few kilometers. Instrument’s radio waves will be reflected at sub-surface layer changes, possibly pinpointing subsurface water and ice. Instrument’s radio waves will be reflected at sub-surface layer changes, possibly pinpointing subsurface water and ice.

11 Beagle II Lander

12 Beagle II Instrumentation 3 Gas analysis package, mass spectrometer 3 Gas analysis package, mass spectrometer 4 Robotic arm 4 Robotic arm 5 Mole sampling tip 5 Mole sampling tip 7 Stereoscopic camera 7 Stereoscopic camera 8 Corer / grinder 8 Corer / grinder 9 Mössbauer mineral spectrometer 9 Mössbauer mineral spectrometer 10 Microscope 10 Microscope 11 X-ray fluorescence chemical spectrometer 11 X-ray fluorescence chemical spectrometer

13 Gas Analysis Package Will be conducting experiments to determine past or present life on Mars using rock and soil samples. Will be conducting experiments to determine past or present life on Mars using rock and soil samples. Twelve ovens in the Lander will heat samples in the presence of oxygen while any carbon dioxide released will be analyzed by the mass spectrometer to distinguish abundances of carbon-12 and carbon-13. Twelve ovens in the Lander will heat samples in the presence of oxygen while any carbon dioxide released will be analyzed by the mass spectrometer to distinguish abundances of carbon-12 and carbon-13.

14 Mössbauer & X-Ray Spectrometer Mössbauer will irradiate exposed rock surfaces and soil with gamma-rays emitted by a cobalt-57 source and then measure gamma-ray spectrum that is reflected. Mössbauer will irradiate exposed rock surfaces and soil with gamma-rays emitted by a cobalt-57 source and then measure gamma-ray spectrum that is reflected. X-Ray spec. will bombard rock surfaces with X- rays from four (iron and cadmium) radioactive sources. Low energy X-rays emitted will show characteristic of the elements present in the rock. X-Ray spec. will bombard rock surfaces with X- rays from four (iron and cadmium) radioactive sources. Low energy X-rays emitted will show characteristic of the elements present in the rock.

15 The Mole Mole will accomplish its task of rock sampling by burrowing into rock and below the surface up to 1 meter Mole will accomplish its task of rock sampling by burrowing into rock and below the surface up to 1 meter

16 NASA’s MER Mission

17 MER & The Athena Payload MER = Mars Exploration Rover MER = Mars Exploration Rover Has the goal of acting as two identical roving robotic geologists. Has the goal of acting as two identical roving robotic geologists.

18 PANCAM Panoramic Camera Boasts the best capabilities of any camera ever sent to the Martian surface. Boasts the best capabilities of any camera ever sent to the Martian surface. Will be used to survey the Martian surroundings as well as the sky above with a 180-degree vertical and horizontal rotation capability, Will be used to survey the Martian surroundings as well as the sky above with a 180-degree vertical and horizontal rotation capability, Will be able to image under a multi-spectrum view to better study mineral composition. Will be able to image under a multi-spectrum view to better study mineral composition. MERs also have microscopic and engineering cameras MERs also have microscopic and engineering cameras

19 Spectrometers x3 Another Mössbauer Another Mössbauer Another X-ray spec, APXS Another X-ray spec, APXS Miniature thermal imaging spectrometer (mini-TES) that uses infrared data to determine the mineral composition in rocks and soils. Carbonates and clays will be especially important to detect since these form in the presence of water. Miniature thermal imaging spectrometer (mini-TES) that uses infrared data to determine the mineral composition in rocks and soils. Carbonates and clays will be especially important to detect since these form in the presence of water.

20 RAT Rock Abrasion Tool

21 Magnet Array One magnet is near the rock abrasion tool and will attract magnetic dust from the grinding of the rocks. One magnet is near the rock abrasion tool and will attract magnetic dust from the grinding of the rocks. Another will be set on top of the rovers so that the material is within reach of the Mössbauer and APXS instruments. Another will be set on top of the rovers so that the material is within reach of the Mössbauer and APXS instruments. A third is set near the panoramic camera and is strong enough to deflect magnetic dust away from the lens of the camera to keep a clean view. A third is set near the panoramic camera and is strong enough to deflect magnetic dust away from the lens of the camera to keep a clean view.

22 Latest News Mars Express has passed all system checks during interspace travel and is scheduled to land Beagle II Christmas day Mars Express has passed all system checks during interspace travel and is scheduled to land Beagle II Christmas day NASA mission is also passing system tests and is on course to land Spirit on January 3 rd 2004 and Opportunity January 24 th NASA mission is also passing system tests and is on course to land Spirit on January 3 rd 2004 and Opportunity January 24 th 2004.


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