Climate and Weather Pages 31-38. Climate and Weather Weather refers to the conditions in the atmosphere of a certain place at a certain time. (ex: The.
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Climate and Weather Weather refers to the conditions in the atmosphere of a certain place at a certain time. (ex: The weather today in Halifax is 12 degrees and it is raining) Weather is predicted through a science called “meteorology”
Climate Climate refers to the patterns of weather over a longer time period in a general area. (example: Nova Scotia has a cool, moist climate with precipitation most of the year.) Climate varies around the world and is influenced by a number of factors. Some are global and some are regional….
Global Factors Latitude – The sun’s rays are most intense at the equator so climate is influenced by how close or far away a place is from the equator
Air Masses and Wind – Air contains moisture and can be warm or cold, depending where it comes from. –Air that comes from over the water is called “maritime” and is moist. It can be “tropical” (warm) or “polar” (cold) –Air that originates over land is dry and is called “continental”. It can also be polar or tropical.
Ocean Currents also affect the climate because they influence the air above them. For example, if a wind passes over a warm ocean current, it will become warm and moist and bring warm wet weather with it. Why do you think we sometimes get hurricanes in Nova Scotia in autumn?
Clouds and precipitation also influence climate. A cloud is a mass of water droplets suspended in the air. When these particles become large enough, they may fall to the ground as precipitation Precipitation can be rain, snow, hail, etc.
Usually precipitation can be predicted because scientists can guess when and air mass might move or changes, or when two or more air masses might collide.
Regional Factors Altitude refers to how high above the earth’s surface something is. When air masses reach high altitudes, they may condense and form clouds, even storms.
The location of bodies of water also affect regional climate because water heats and cools more slowly than land. As a result, regions close to bodies of water experience different climates than those that aren’t. Nova Scotia is affected by the Atlantic Ocean, but do you think southern Ontario is affected by the Great Lakes?
Finally, mountains also affect a region’s climate. Because air must rise to very high altitudes in order to move over mountains, they often bring precipitation. This is especially true if the air first passed over a body of water. This is why the Coast Mountain region of British Columbia receives so much rain and snow.