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Origins of US Government

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of US Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of US Government
MRs. Grable

2 Our Political Heritage
Limited government – power of the government or monarch is limited, not absolute Representative government – people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government Rule of Law – no one, not even government, is above the law, everyone must obey all laws

3 Our Political Heritage
Separation of powers – division of powers within the government Due Process – people have the right to fair and reasonable laws Inalienable/unalienable rights – rights that cannot be taken away from you (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) Social Contract Theory - People surrender to the state the power needed to maintain order; in turn, state agrees to protect its citizens

4 Where did we get these ideas?
English Documents Magna Carta English Petition of Rights English Bill of Rights Important Historical People Hobbes Locke Montesquieu Rousseau

5 Magna Carta - History Means “Great Charter”
King John financed a war with more taxes As a result, people rose in rebellion People presented King John with the Magna Carta as a compromise Meant to limit the power of the Monarch The King signed in 1215

6 Magna Carta – Major Ideas U.S. Used
Limited Power of Government Guaranteed Trial by Jury Due process of law All people, not just privileged, protected Major Take Away – First document of its kind that limited power of Monarch or government!

7 English Petition of Rights - History
Charles I requested more money in taxes for his unpopular foreign policy Parliament refused Charles I forced loans and quartering of troops English Parliament produced Petition of Rights in hostility to Charles I

8 English Petition of Rights – Major Ideas U.S. Used
Rule of law Unalienable rights Trial by jury Protection against quartering of troops Protection of private property Major Take Away- First document to ensure man’s unalienable rights

9 English Bill of Rights - History
Parliament offered crown to William and Mary of Orange during the Glorious Rebellion To prevent misuse of power, Parliament drew up a Bill of Rights that had to be agreed to by William and Mary before taking power Signed in 1688

10 English Bill of Rights – Major Ideas U.S. Used
Limited government Right to petition peacefully Parliamentary checks on power (separation of power) Fair and speedy trial Freedom from excessive bail Protection from cruel and unusual punishment Major Take Away – The most important document to influence the colonist’s general beliefs about government

11 Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan”
Believed in a state of nature, no government exists A better life will be assured through existence of a government Major Take Away - Believed to be the first to write about Social Contract Theory without calling it that Social Contract Theory - Men give up some freedoms to government in exchange for protection from government

12 John Locke “Second Treatise on Government”
Government exists to protect life, liberty, and property (inalienable rights) Society holds power, and those who govern must be elected by society (Representative Government) Government exists to better the people (Social Contract Theory) Major Take Away – The primary influence of the Declaration of Independence

13 Montesquieu “The Spirit of Laws”
Used examples from history to prove his points The state should be a reflection of the people and what they want (representative government) Believed in 3 branches of government (separation of powers) Major Take Away – First philosopher to use history to prove his points, first to advocate for 3 branches of government

14 Rousseau “Social Contract Theory”
“Man is born free, but everywhere else he is in chains” Legitimate political authority comes from a social contract Major take away- Finally gave a name to the concept of Social Contract Theory

15 Government in the Colonies
13 colonies founded between 1607 and 1733 Each could create own laws, raise taxes, set up court system, etc. Established practices that are still key today including written constitutions, elected legislature, and separation of powers

16 What happened to our relationship with Great Britain?
French and Indian War (1754) – French and British struggle over lands in western Penn. and Ohio - Left Britain with huge war debt, which they expected colonists to help pay To british, colonies only existed for economiic benefit of great britain Colonies to remain allegiant to monarch and Britisth governmt As long as coloines provide toGB, they were kind of left alone Then come the mid 1700s

17 First steps toward Colonial Unity
Albany Plan of Union (1754) Proposed by Benjamin Franklin Main purpose was to decided how colonies would defend themselves from French Franklin suggested a congress be formed, and representatives from each colony meet to make treaties, collect taxes, and oversee land disputes Colonist rejected because too much power to the government

18 During the war… 1760- King George III became Britain’s new king British won the French and Indian War , so King George decided that the colonies should give Britain some money to pay back war debt

19 The results of the War and the New King
Taxes were levied on the colonies on tea, sugar, glass, paper, and other products to help pay war debt Stamp Act (1765) – first ever direct tax on colonists, tax on legal documents, newspaper, pamphlets, etc.

20 How did the colonies respond?
1765- Stamp Act Congress 9 colonies sent delegates to this meeting to protest King George’s actions Sent a petition to the king arguing that only colonial legislatures could pass laws that imposed taxes

21 The British listened…kind of.
1766 – Declaratory Act - asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were binding on the American colonies. British repealed (got rid of) the Stamp Act, but continued passing laws that increased taxes and tariffs on colonies as a result of this act

22 The Colonist got angry…
Boston Tea Party, protests, refusal to buy British goods, etc.

23 What did the British do next?
In retaliation, Parliament passed the Coercive Acts, know to the Colonists as Intolerable Acts (1774) which included: Closing Boston harbor to everyone except British ships The British Governor was in charge of all the town meetings Colonist had to house and feed British troops

24 How did colonist respond?
The First Continental Congress (Sep 1774) Delegates from all colonies (except GA) met to debate relationship with Great Britain Imposed an embargo (refusal to trade) against Great Britain Proposed a follow up meeting in a year if Britain did not change

25 War Breaks Out George III tells Britain “The New England Governments are in a state of rebellion! Blows must decide whether they are part of this country or independent!” April Battle of Lexington at Concord, first battle of the Revolutionary War

26 Colonist Unite to Fight
Second Continental Congress (May 1775) Representatives from all 13 colonies Formed central government for the war John Hancock voted president George Washington voted commander of newly formed Continental Army

27 The Declaration of Independence
June 1776 –Meeting held to discuss forming a new nation Congress names a committee to prepare a written Declaration of Independence Congress assigned a committee to create a ‘plan for confederation’

28 Declaration of Independence
Committee selected to draft the DOI included John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson Drafted primarily by Thomas Jefferson Signed by Congress on July 4th, 1776

29 Key Parts of the Declaration of Independence
Part 1 – Preamble Reasons for writing the document Part 2 – Statement of Beliefs Philosophy behind the document Part 3 – Complaints against King George III List of offenses that caused this declaration Part 4 – Statement of prior attempts to address these complaints Part 5 – Declaration of Independence Colonists determination to separate from Great Britain

30 Articles of Confederation
One delegate from each colony worked together and presented a plan called “The Articles of Confederation” (1777) In March of 1781, all 13 states had ratified (approved) the Articles Served as the 1st Constitution of the United States

31 The War is Over! Revolutionary War Ends 1783

32 Basic Ideas of the Articles
Gave most power to the states Unicameral (single chamber) Congress No Judicial or Legislative branch Each state had one vote in Congress State Legislatures selected own representative for Congress

33 Powers of Central Government (Congress) under Articles of Confederation
Make war and peace Enter into treaties Request money from states Maintain Army by requesting troops from states Establish post offices Regulate Indian affairs

34 Powers of States under Articles of Confederation
Choose to obey national laws Choose to give taxes to central government Veto amendments in the Articles of Confederation Regulate trade Print money Enforce laws

35 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Congress had no power to regulate trade Congress could not tax No power over state governments All 13 states had to agree to change the Articles of Confederation Each state printed its own money

36 Need for stronger central government
War debt unpaid Economic depression State disputes

37 The Constitutional Convention – May 1787
Delegates from all colonies except Rhode Island Each state was given 1 vote on all disagreements Major issues were power of central government, slavery, and trade Described as ‘a bundle of compromises’ 9 of 13 states were needed to ratify

38 Ratifying the Constitution
Federalist VS James Madison, Alexander Hamilton Favored the new Constitution Favored stronger central government Argued Bill of Rights was not necessary Anti-Federalists Patrick Henry, George Mason, James Monroe Favored the Articles of Confederation Feared strong central government Wanted inclusion of a Bill of Rights

39 Ratifying the Constitution
To gain support, Federalist promised to add a Bill of Rights as the first order of business “The Federalist Papers” – 80 essays defending the new Constitution Written by Hamilton, Madison, and John Jay Published in a New York newspaper

40 Ratifying the Constitution
June 1788 – 9 states had ratified the Constitution Delaware - December 7th, 1787 Pennsylvania – December 12th, 1787 New Jersey – December 18th, 1787 Georgia – January 2nd, 1788 Connecticut – January 9th, 1788 Massachusetts – February 6th, 1788 Maryland – April 28th, 1788 South Carolina – May 23rd, 1788 New Hampshire – June 21st, 1788

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