Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 2 Notes SECTION 2: Main Idea: When Great Britain attempted to exert tighter control over the American colonists, who were used to running."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 Section 2 Notes
SECTION 2: Main Idea: When Great Britain attempted to exert tighter control over the American colonists, who were used to running their own affairs, resisted and eventually declared indpendence.
Colonial Resistance and Rebellion The British government began to tighten its grip on the American colonies.
George III adopted a policy of mercantilism, the theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys.
Britain needed the colonies as a cheap source of raw materials.
Britain wanted to buy American raw materials at low prices and sell colonists British products at high prices.
French and Indian War – Britain protected the colonists from the French and Indians and expected them to pay off the war debts.
To pay off war debts and cover the costs of ruling the new lands, Britain taxed the colonists. Colonists resented the taxes.
Britain placed steep taxes on the colonists. Colonists had no representation in Parliament but still had to pay the taxes Parliament demanded.
Stamp Act 1765 – tax on newspapers and legal documents.
In protest, the Colonists decided to boycott (refused to buy) British goods. 4. Some taxes, such as the Stamp Tax, were repealed (canceled).
However, Parliament soon replaced them with new taxes.
Declaratory Act 1766 – Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies. Colonists again boycotted.
Townsend Acts – tax on tea, glass, paper and lead (products that colonists did not make themselves).
1773 – Tea Act: gave Britain’s East India Tea Company an unfair advantage over colonial tea companies. Resulted in the Boston Tea Party.
Parliament responded with the Coercive or Intolerable Acts: ) Restricted colonists right to trial by jury 2) Allowed British soldiers to search and move into colonists; homes
Question: What name did the colonists give to the Coercive Acts, and why?
Intolerable Acts: laws restricted the colonists’ rights including the right to trial by jury and British soldiers could search and move into colonists’ homes.
Movement Toward Independence:
I. First Continental Congress The colonies sent delegates, or representatives to a meeting in Philadelphia in September It lasted 7 weeks.
They demanded King George restore the colonists’ rights and planned to extend the boycott.
King George responded with force: Battles of Lexington and Concord
Colonists started to question their loyalty. They began talking about independence, or self- reliance and freedom from outside control.
II. Second Continental Congress Met in May 1775 in Philadelphia 1) debate lasted for months 2) Not every delegate wanted independence
3) January 1776: Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called “Common Sense”.
Stated it was common sense to stop following the “royal brute” King George and called for complete independence from Britain.
Question: Why did some members of the Second Continental Congress oppose independence?
Most colonists had relatives who were still in England they would be fighting. The colonists would be fighting a major world power with fewer resources.
They war would be fought in colonists’ home territory which could lead to great loss of life and property.
(5)Virginia Declaration of Rights – was written on June 12, 1776 in Virginia by George Mason
Its goal was to protect the people from the government
Basis for the Bill of Rights & Constitution of the U.S. 1. Freedom of Press and religion
2. Warrants needed for search and seizure
3. Call witnesses for defense 4. Face accusers 5. No excessive bail/fines or cruel & unusual punishment.
6. Free elections 7. No taxation without representation
(6). Declaration of Independence The majority of it was written by Thomas Jefferson
It argued that the British government did not look after the interests of the colonists. It listed many abuses by the king.
1) It said the purpose of the government is to protect the people. Government is based on consent of the people.
2) People are entitle to overthrow the government if it disregards their rights.
3) His writing was influenced by John Locke, 17 th century English Philosopher
a. Government is based on a social contract between the people and the rulers. b. People agree to give up some of their freedom and abide by the decisions of the government.
c. In return, the government promises to protect the lives, property and liberty of the people. d. If the government misuses its power, the people should rebel.
Established idea that all people are equal under the law. Stated that people have unalienable rights (Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).
Proclaimed the 13 colonies free from British control.
Declaration of Independence approved on July 4, 1776.
Question: What are some ideas that the authors of the Declaration of Independence adopted from the writing of John Locke?
The Declaration included Locke’s ideas that : Government is based on the consent of the people The purpose of government is to protect the rights of the people If it doesn’t fulfill this purpose the people have the right to overthrow it
It also included Locke’s idea that all people should equally enjoy the rights of life, liberty and property.