2Objectives Describe the colonists’ political heritage. Explain the colonists’ reaction to new taxes.Describe the methods the colonists used to protest British taxes.Understand the significance of the First Continental Congress in 1774.
3Revolution: the usually violent attempt by many people to end the rule of one government and start a new one: a sudden, extreme, or complete change in the way people live, work, etc
4Terms and PeopleStamp Act – 1765 act by Parliament that placed a tax on all printed materialsJohn Adams – Massachusetts lawyer who championed colonial independencePatrick Henry – Virginia colonist who demanded “Give me liberty, or give me death.”Sons of Liberty – Patriot associations that protested against British taxesnonimportation agreements – colonial boycotts of British goods following the Stamp Act
5Terms and People (continued) Boston Massacre – the 1770 shooting of five Boston citizens by British soldierscommittee of correspondence – provided leadership and cooperation between coloniesBoston Tea Party – 1773 Patriot protest against British tax on tea; Patriots dumped British tea into Boston HarborIntolerable Acts – colonial label for the Coercive Acts punishing Boston after the Boston Tea Party
6Terms and People (continued) First Continental Congress – 1774 meeting of colonial delegates to protest the Intolerable Acts
7What caused the colonists to rebel against the British? Colonists enjoyed military protection, profits from trade, and political rights as British subjects.When Britain imposed taxes, colonists protested. These protests grew into rebellion and eventually turned into war.
8In the 1760s, colonists cherished their rights as Englishmen. Due process of lawFreedom of the pressTrial by juryProtection from foreign attack
9But, by modern standards, Britain was not very democratic. Wealth and birth determined power and status.There was no formal charter outlining citizen rights.Only a quarter of British males could vote.Parliament claimed virtual representation allowing it to make laws for all British subjects.
10In contrast, the colonies were quite democratic. Most colonies had elected assemblies.These charters outlined individual rights.Colonial assemblies controlled royal governors by withholding their salaries if displeased.Most males could vote for their assemblies but none could vote for members of Parliament.
11Comparing British and Colonial Governments Great BritainAmerican ColoniesKingInherited executive powerGovernorAppointed by the King but paid by colonial legislatureParliamentColonial LegislaturesHouse of LordsAristocrats with inherited legislative powerUpper House or CouncilProminent citizens appointed by the governorHouse of CommonsElected by the few wealthy property ownersLower House or AssemblyElected property owners about two-thirds of colonists
12After the French and Indian War, Parliament decided to tax the colonists. The war raised Britain’s debt. Defending the colonies was expensive.People in Britain already paid higher taxes.By collecting taxes and paying royal governors directly, Parliament could take control away from the colonial assemblies.
13Action and ReactionBritain wanted colonies to contribute to costs of protecting the empire1764 Sugar ActQuartering Act (1765)(more British soldiers are stationed in the colonies after the French and Indian War)
14Stamp Act1765Revenue stamps required to be place on most printed paperTo be paid directly by the people who used the goodsColonists believed their rights (including the right not to be taxed without representation) were being threatenedNine colonies sent delegates to Stamp Act CongressSons and Daughters of Liberty formedBoycotts were used effectivelyStamp Act Congress as another step towards unityBoycotts also another step towards unity and common actionWhy are colonists so willingly able to believe that their rights were in jeopardy?
17Public Punishment for the Excise Man, 1774 T his popular rendering of the punishment of Commissioner ofCustoms John Malcomb shows him tarred and featheredand forcibly “paid” with great quantities of tea. From theLiberty Tree in the background dangles the threat ofhanging, all for attempting to collect duties in Boston.p118
181766 Stamp Act repealed but Parliament passed the Declaratory Act which asserted its right to tax and make laws for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.”End of first phase of crisis.Colonists emboldened by their success.
19Death of the Stamp Act This cartoon shows British government ministers mourning the end of the Stamp Act. George Grenville carries a coffin to a tomb containing the remains of other unpopular acts. In the background, warehouses are empty because the contents have quickly been shipped to America.
20Townshend Acts 1767 Duties on tea, glass, and paper Repealed 1770 Return to indirect taxesPaid to crown officials (so they would no longer be dependent upon colonial assemblies)NY’s assembly suspended for defiance of the Quartering ActRepealed 1770Protests, boycotts, smuggling
21New taxes caused colonists to shout– “No taxation without representation!” Sugar Act (1764) assigned customs officers and special courts to collect taxes and prosecute smugglers.Quartering Act (1765) required colonists to provide housing and supplies for British soldiers.Stamp Act (1765) taxed printed materials such as newspapers, books, and contracts.
22Parliament rejected colonist complaints by claiming: Parliament represented, and could tax, any subject.Other citizens couldn’t vote but still paid taxes.The revenue was necessary.The colonists could afford to pay their share.The colonists were selfish and narrow-minded.
23Colonists protested in 3 ways: Colonists protested in 3 ways: IntellectualEconomicViolenceArgued that government is a social contract with citizens.Advocated natural rights including life, liberty, and property.Daughters of Liberty wore homespun only.Nonimportation agreements called for a boycott of goods from Britain.Rebels tarred and feathered tax collectors.Mobs destroyed governor’s home and assaulted royal officials.Boston Tea Party dumped British tea into harbor.
24Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but replaced it with the Townshend Acts (1767) that taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea.Colonists held the Stamp Act Congress (October 1765) and boycotted British goods.Boston rioted against corrupt customs officials and seizure of John Hancock’s boat Liberty.The governor dissolved the Massachusetts legislature and 4,000 British troops were sent to Boston.
25Boston MassacreMarch 1770British soldiers in Boston to protect customs officials5 killedIncident was used by radicals to inflame anti-British feelings
26In March 1770, British soldiers fired at a Boston mob, killing five. Patriots used this Boston Massacre to incite and organize colonists.
27Two Views of the Boston Massacre, 1770 and 1856 Both of these prints of the Boston Massacre were art as well as propaganda. Paul Revere’s engraving (left) began circulating within three weeks of the event inMarch 1770, depicting not a clash of brawlers but armed soldiers taking aim at peaceful citizens. Absent alsowas any evidence of the mulatto ringleader, Crispus Attucks. Revere wanted his print to convince viewers ofthe indisputable justice of the colonists’ cause. By the mid-1850s, when the chromolithograph (right)circulated, it served a new political purpose. In the era of the abolitionist movement, freedman CrispusAttucks held center place in the print, which portrayed his death as an American martyr in the revolutionarystruggle for freedom.p119
29Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts except for the tax on tea. Parliament gave the British East India Company a special deal that made its tea cheapest in the colonies.In protest, in 1773 Boston Patriots dressed like Indians and dumped the tea into Boston harbor.
30The Boston Tea Party,December 16, 1773 Crying“Boston harbor a teapot thisnight,” Sons of Liberty disguisedas Indians hurled chests of teainto the sea to protest the tax ontea and to make sure that itscheap price did not prove an“invincible temptation” to thepeople.p121
31Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish Boston. Closed the port of BostonQuartered soldiers in Boston homesIncreased the governor’s power at expense of legislatureAllowed British officials to be tried in BritainColonists formed committees of correspondence to coordinate protests against these Intolerable Acts.
32Intolerable Acts 1774 Response to the Boston Tea Party Also known as the Coercive ActsPort of Boston closedMassachusetts legislature limitedRoyal officials accuse of crimes could be tried in Great BritainQuartering Act expanded to all coloniesQuebec Act (made Catholicism the official religion in Canada and extended its borders to the Ohio River)
33First Continental Congress September-October 1774Met in PhiladelphiaAll colonies except Georgia sent delegatesCalled for a boycott of British goodsIssued Declaration and Resolves that outlined colonial grievancesAgreed to meet again the following year
34In 1774 the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia In 1774 the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. Patrick Henry demanded, “Give me liberty, or give me death.”Most still hoped the king would side with them against Parliament. Some, like John Adams, believed a new country was being born.
35Second Continental Congress May 1775Met in PhiladelphiaCreated the Continental Army and made George Washington its commander
36Title: Poor old England endeavoring to reclaim his wicked American children Creator(s): Darly, Matthew, active , publisher Date Created/Published: [London] : Pub. by M. Darly 39 Strand, 1777 Apr. Medium: 1 print : etching. Summary: Print shows England as an old man with wooden leg and crutch tugging on strings hooked onto the noses of five American men across a divide labeled "The Atlantic Ocean"; the men resist, shoot pellets at, and taunt old England. Includes a quote attributed to Shakespeare, "And therefore is England maimed & forc'd to go with a staff".