Presentation on theme: "American Revolutionary War. The American Revolution 1775-1883 The revolutionary war in America is also known as the American revolution. It was fought."— Presentation transcript:
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolution The revolutionary war in America is also known as the American revolution. It was fought between great Britain and the thirteen colonies. The result was the formation of a new nation-the United States of America.
Fighting between British soldiers and the American Patriots began April 19,1775, at Lexington and Concorde, Massachusetts. The war’s last major battle was at Yorktown, Virginia during September and October Yorktown Britain formally recognized America independence with the signing of the treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783.
Events leading to the American Revolution Britain was deeply in debt following the French and Indian war ( ) in which it defended against the takeover by France. Once the war was won, Britain began passing laws and taxes to increase its control over the colonies and regain some of the money it had spent.
By then, Americans had enjoyed a great Amount of freedom. They especially represented new taxes without their consent and representation in Britain’s parliament.
Major issues that angered them were: 1.The Proclamation of 1763 – England’s King George forbid colonist to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. 2.The Sugar Act of 1764 – placed a 3 cent –penny tax on each gallon of molasses that entered the colonies from outside the British Empire.
3. The Stamp Act of 1765 – required colonist to pay for tax stamps on newspapers, and various legal documents. Parliament abolished the Act in The Townshend Acts of 1767 placed a duty on imported goods including glass, lead, paint, and paper. Americans responded by not buying British goods.
5. The Tea Act of 1773 – To avoid paying the tea tax, colonial merchants smuggled tea in from the Netherlands. In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, which made it possible for the East India Company to sell tea below the price of the smuggled tea. Britain believed that the colonists would buy the English tea since it was cheaper.
BOSTON TEA PARTY On December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams led patriots, disguised as Indians, on a raid of British ships docked in Boston’s harbor. They dumped the cargoes of tea overboard. This was later called the Boston Tea Party.
6. The Intolerable Acts of 1774 – were Britain’s response to the Boston Tea Party. One act closed Boston’s harbor until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea. Another took away nearly all power from Massachusetts’ legislature. Control of the colony was given to the newly appointed British governor, General Thomas Gage.
The First Continental Congress September 5 – October 26, 1774 The First Continental Congress was attended by representatives from all the colonies except Georgia. They bet in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia to protest the Intolerable Acts. There representatives decided to stop trade with Britain unless the Acts were abolished. They also advised colonists to prepare for war. They agree to meet again in May 1775.
Colonial Militia and Minutemen Britain had large numbers of well trained militia. Soldiers’ uniforms included bright red jackets. The colonists called the soldiers “redcoats”.
The colonies did not have a central government, army, or navy. Each colony did have a small citizen army called the militia. Some members of the militia were ordinary citizens such as farmers, craftspeople, and businessmen. They were prepared to drop everything and become volunteers at a moment’s notice. They were called minutemen.
Fighting began in April at Lexington and Concorde. General Gage received secret orders to arrest Massachusetts’ troublemakers. Boston patriots learned about the orders. They fled the city. Gage found out that Americans had stored arms and gun powder in the nearby town of Concorde. Joseph Warren, a Boston patriot, discovered Gage’s plan. He sent three carriers Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott to ride and warn the citizens. Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts 1775
Nearly 150 years later, an American poet, William Wadsworth Longfellow told the story (even though incorrect historically) of the famous ride of referred to as “The Mid-Night of Paul Revere”. It was Samuel Prescott who made the famous ride not Paul Revere.
When the redcoats reached Lexington, seventy minutemen were waiting. It is not known who fired first, But eight minutemen were killed and ten were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured. The British continued toward Concorde. Again minutemen met them. Three redcoats and two patriots were killed. When the British began to march back to Boston, minutemen fired at the from behind trees and bushes. About 250 British were wounded. American losses numbered ninety.
In May 1775, patriots Ethan Allen along with his militia “Green mountain Men” and Benedict Arnold led the siege of Fort Ticonderoga, a British post in New York. They also captured nearby Crown Point. These two victories supplied Americans with much needed artillery. Fort Ticonderoga, New York 1775
1.After the ______ and _______ War, Britain was in great debt. It began passing Laws and taxes to further control the ________. 2.List six taxes and laws that put more control on the colonies. 3.The colonists’ response to the Intolerable Acts of 1774 was a dump English ______ into Boston’s Harbor. This event is called the _______ _______ _______.
4.The Second Continental Congress met in ________ in ________. Congress agreed to _______ with Britain until the ________ were abolished. 5.The Colonists did not have a central ________. 6.Citizens, who were ready to bear arms at a moment’s notice were called ________.
7.These volunteer soldiers had their first encounter with the British on ______ at ________ and _______, Massachusetts. 8.Townspeople were warned that the British were coming by ______,_______, and _________. 9.This famous story has been told in a poem by _________. 10.The Americans had another early victory when they captured the English Post Fort __________.
The Second Continental Congress – May 1775 At firs, few delegates wanted to break ties with Britain. However, King George continued to ignore the colonists’ petitions. He closed all American ports to overseas trade. Support for American independence continued to grow. Even so, it is important to note that as many as one-third of the colonists remained loyal to Britain.
They called themselves loyalist. The patriots called them Tories. More than one-third of the colonists didn’t care one way or the other. The war depended upon the patriots who numbered less than one- third of the population. In Philadelphia, on June 14, 1775, Congress established the Continental Army. On June 15, Virginia’s George Washington was made the army’s Commander in Chief.
Congress soon appointed 13 additional generals. Fighting continued while Congress faced the major tasks of recruiting troops and paying for a war. It had no power to tax. It soon began to issue currency called Continental Dollars. They became nearly worthless. Congress received loans and gifts from wealthy citizens and from other nations, especially France, the Netherlands, and Spain. Benjamin Franklin represented America in France. He played an important role in obtaining French troops and warships.
1.The Second Continental Congress met in ____ on _____. 2.In June of that year they established the _______ Army. 3.George Washington was made _______ of the army. 4.Congress had little _______to finance its fighting against the British. 5.Colonists who wanted freedom were called ________.
6.Colonists who wanted to remain as British citizens were called ________. 7.The colonists decided to declare their independence from the King of ______. 8.The ______ War is the name given to the fighting between the Americans and the _________. 9.During the war who was the King of England?
The Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 Both the British and the Americans wanted to occupy hills overlooking Boston. Americans fortified Breed’s Hill. On July 17, 1775, British troops, under General Howe, attacked. So as not to waste power and shot, Americans were ordered not to fire until they saw the whites of the enemies’ eyes! Patriots fought until they ran out of ammunition and had to flee. This battle is know as the Battle of Bunker Hill.
American Expedition to Canada 1775 Britain had two colonies in Canada that remained loyal. I fall 1775, Congress ordered troops to march into Canada to keep British forces from invading New York. Benedict Arnold led a force toward Quebec, and Richard Montgomery led troops toward Montreal. Montgomery was killed and Arnold wounded. American forces were forced to retreat in spring of 1776.
Siege of Boston British Retreat from Boston 1776 General Washington knew that by fortifying the high ground around Boston, he could drive the British from that city. A plan was made to move the captured Fort Ticonderoga cannons across the show-covered Bershire Mountains to Dorchester Heights.
This began in January and was accomplished by March 4, 1776 With cannons looking down on them, General Howe and his troops left Boston. Nine thousand British soldiers sailed to Halifax, Canada. Washington then sent his troops south of New York.
The Declaration of Independence 1776 All the events and battles we have read about so far occurred before the colonies declared their independence from England. By the summer of 1776, it was clear that there could be no turning back. The Second Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft a document declaring the colonies to be free and independent states.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence and it is one of the best political documents ever written. On July 4, 1776, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
1.June 1776, Congress called for the colonies to become _______ states. 2.The Declaration of Independence was adopted on ___________. 3.The main author of the Declaration of Independence was ________________.
Howe’s Return from Canada Just days before the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Howe returned from Halifax and New York City. With new reinforcements, he quickly drove patriots out of Brooklyn heights and New York City. Nathan Hale, a patriot and young Connecticut schoolteacher, was spying behind enemy lines. He was caught and hanged. He is last words were, “I regret I have but one life to lose for my country.”
Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey 1776 After losing New York City, in the Siege of Long Island, Washington’s troops with drew to New Jersey. General Cornwallis attacked them. They escaped across the Delaware River to Pennsylvania o December 7, Trenton, New Jersey also located across the river was occupied by German Hessian soldiers whom the British had hired.
Washington quietly crossed the Delaware on Christmas night. Early on December 26 he attacked the sleeping Hessians, and took 900 prisoners. Cornwallis marked toward Trenton. Washington’s troops secretly slipped past the British and attacked on January 3 at Princeton. The American’s were victorious. Washington then moved his troops to winter headquarters in Morristown, New York.
1.After losing New York in the Siege of Long Island, Washington withdrew to ____________. 2.General __________ attacked the Americans, and they escaped across the ___________River to _____________ on December 7, On Christmas night, Washington secretly crossed the ________ and attacked the soldiers early December On January 3, 1777 Washington was victorious at __________________.
Brandywine Creek and Germantown, Pennsylvania The two armies clashed again on September 11, 1777, at Brandywine Creek in southern Pennsylvania. British forces were victorious and occupied Philadelphia. The Continental Congress fled to New York. On October 4, 1777, Washington struck back at Germantown. Again the Americans had to retreat.
Saratoga, New York 1777 In July 1777, British General john Borgoyne led troops toward New York from Canada. As Burgoyne moved south, patriots destroyed bridges, and cut down trees to block his advance. From behind trees and bushes, riflemen shot the redcoats. Burgoyne finally began to retreat, but it was to late.
The patriots surrounded him at Saratoga. On October 17, he surrended to the American Army. The Battle of Saratoga, New York, was the turning point of the war. The Americans captured the whole army of General Burgoyne. The Americans took supplies, arms, and nearly 6000 prisoners. After the great victory at Saratoga, France decided to enter the war on the side of the Americans to fight against the British.
1.The turning point of the war was at the Battle of __________ in New York on ________. 2.This American victory convinced __________ to enter the war on the side of the Americans. 3.Name the British General who lost the Battle of Saratoga. _______________
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania Washington and his army of 10,000 soldiers camped at Valley Forge. They had very little food, clothing, or supplies. Nearly one-fourth had died by spring. Many deserted. A Prussian soldier, Baron Von Steuben, arrived in February. He and The Marquis de Lafayette, a French nobleman soldier, helped to further train the American troops.
1.Washington’s Army spend the winter of at ___________, Pennsylvania. 2.Soldiers had very little ______or _____. 3.Because of the bad winter many ______, and many ___________. 4.French officer __________, and a German officer ____________ the Americans retrained the remaining troops.
Monmouth, New Jersey June 1778 British General Clinton left Philadelphia on June 18, 1778 to march across New Jersey to New York. He was met by the Continental Army near Monmouth Court house on June 28. The encounter ended in a draw. Clinton continued to New York this was the last major Revolutionary War battle in the north.
Fighting At Sea Americans had almost no Navy, but in 1778, John Paul Jones on board his ship, The Bonhomme Richard, managed to overtake the British ship Serapis.
1.Americans had almost non navy. One of its ships’ was the _____________. 2.______________ defeated the British ship _______________ off the coast of England in 1778.
Fighting In the West Colonists who crossed the Appalachian Mountains to settle new lands found themselves fighting against the British, as well as Indians whom the British encouraged to fight the colonists. Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark was sent to strike back. He seized British forts along the frontier.
1.On the western front Lt. Col. Clark captured a British Fort on the western side of the ____________ Mountains. 2.The Americans during the American Revolutionary War fought the British and the __________ on the western front.
Fighting In the South After France entered the war, Britain concentrated on conquering southern colonies. In 1778 the British easily captured the port of Savannah, Georgia. Within months Britain controlled all of Georgia. They moved on to take Charleston, South Carolina, in 1780.
Yorktown, Virginia Sept. – Oct The last major battle of the war was fought at Yorktown. French and American forces caused Cornwallis a major defeat. Eight thousand British soldiers surrendered on October 16, Fighting dragged on in some areas for two more years. Britain suffered great financial losses, and was afraid of losing other parts of its empire. It began peace talks in 1782.
1.The last major battle of the war was at ______________. 2.Together the _________ and the ________ troops caused the British a defeat. 3.Who were in command of the British forces at the battle of Yorktown?_____ 4.On what date did the British surrender to the Americans? ________ 5.Who were in command of the American forces at the end of the war? ________
The Treaty of Paris 1783 Peace talks began in Paris in Richard Oswald, a wealthy British merchant, represented Britain. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represented the new Unite States. A treat was agreed upon on November 30, The Treaty recognized the independence of the new nation and established its borders – from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River; north to Canada; and south to Florida
Benjamin Franklin and John Adams
Americans also gained fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Britain gave Florida to Spain in the Treaty of Versailles. Nearly 26,000 Americans lost their lives from battle and disease in the American Revolution. British looses totaled about 10,000.
1.Where did the peace talks take place at the end of the war? ___________ 2.What was the name of the Treaty that ended the Revolutionary War? __________________ 3.After the Revolutionary War the 3 Colonies became know as the _________________. 4.When was the Peace Treaty signed? __________________
5. The Revolutionary War lasted from _________ to ____________. 6.The colonist won their freedom from _______ at the end of the Revolutionary War. 7.Name the new borders of the united States because of the Peace Treaty in _______________ 8.What other Country got land from the Peace Treaty of 1783? _________
9.Put these sentences in the correct order. English colonists settled in Jamestown. European explore the Americas. The French and Indian War ends. The colonies become a free country. The Revolutionary War begins. Only Indians live in North America.