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MR. BRINKMAN’S POWERPOINT FOR THE TREES AND PLANTS OF KENTUCKY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers.

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Presentation on theme: "MR. BRINKMAN’S POWERPOINT FOR THE TREES AND PLANTS OF KENTUCKY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers."— Presentation transcript:

1 MR. BRINKMAN’S POWERPOINT FOR THE TREES AND PLANTS OF KENTUCKY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

2 PLANT CELLS Major differences that plant cells Have the animal cells do not. 1.Cell wall 2.Vacuole 3.Chlorophyll Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

3 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

4 PHOTOSYNTHESIS FORMULA Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

5 CALVIN CYCLE LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

6 KREBS CYCLE LIGHT INDEPENDENT Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

7 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide –ATP generated by the light reactions provides the energy for sugar synthesis –The NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose Light Chloroplast Light reactions Calvin cycle NADP  ADP + P The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy – Produce ATP & NADPH AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

8 ANATOMY OF A TREE Crown= Where the leaves are located and the tree carries out photosynthesis Trunk= Support and Water + Sugar transport via roots to trunk or crown to trunk. Roots= Mineral and water absorption, and anchors the tree. Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

9 ANATOMY OF A PLANT ROOTS: ANCHORS PLANTS, ABSORBS MINERALS AND WATERS STEMS; ALLOWS MINERALS, WATER, AND SUGAR TO TRANSFER. LEAVES: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

10 ANATOMY OF A LEAF CUTICLE= WAXY COATING ON UPPER PART OF LEAF STOMATA= OPENING ON BOTTOM SIDE OF LEAF FOR GAS AND H20 EXCHANGE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

11 WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

12 HOW TO KEY TREES The first step in tree identification is knowing that there are always distinguishing characteristics that separate one tree species from another. By examining different tree parts you will be able to confidently identify the different trees around your school. This will require some careful detective work on your part, but it should be fun and easy. Here are some clues that you will need to examine: TREE TYPE --Deciduous or Conifer? Tree or a shrub? Determining these things starts you off on your way to tree identification. TREE TYPE LEAF --Leaves are often the easiest way to identify most trees. Are the leaves arranged in an opposite or alternate pattern? LEAF BARK --Bark can be helpful for identifying some types of trees. BARK FRUIT --The wide variety of fruit shapes makes them useful when identifying trees. FRUIT TWIG --You can actually tell a lot just by looking at the twig. TWIG FORM --The way a tree grows can tell you a great deal about a tree. FORM Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

13 Keying Certain Trees and Plants Questions to ask your self! Does the tree loose its leaves in fall?(Deciduous) Does the tree keep leaves all year long? (Coniferous) Does the plant survive only 1 year? (annual) Does the plant come back every year (Perennial) Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

14 Common Trees in Kentucky 1. American Beech16. Sassafras 2. American Holly17. Sugar Maple 3. American Linden18. Sweet Birch 4. Black Locust19. Sycamore 5. Black Walnut20. Tulip Poplar 6. Bur Oak21. Virginia Pine 7. Eastern White Pine22. White Ash 8. Eastern Hemlock23. White Oak 9. Honey locust 10. Kentucky Coffeetree 11. Northern Catalpa 12. Northern Red Oak 13. Ohio Buckeye 14. Red Maple 15. River Birch Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

15 AMERICAN BEECH American beech is the only member of the Fagus genus that is native to North America. It is probably best known for its very smooth, gray bark that usually has someone's initials carved into it. American beech is a slow-growing, long-lived species that may survive for 300 to 400 years. It makes an excellent shade tree.

16 AMERICAN HOLLY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The holly family, Aquifoliaceae, is widely used for landscaping all over the world and in holiday decorations. Holly is chosen for its decorative value because of the thick, dark green, year-round foliage and its red berries.

17 AMERICAN LINDEN Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Most often seen at 40 to 50 feet in height with a spread of 35 to 40 feet, American Linden or Basswood is capable of reaching 80 to 100 feet or more. The tree is pyramidal when young but develops into a striking specimen with an upright, oval canopy atop a tall, straight trunk.

18 BLACK LOCUST Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers DESCRIPTION: Black locust is a leguminous deciduous tree that grows from 30 to 80 feet tall. It is often attacked by stem borers and other insects, causing deformed growth and dieback. It has a shallow, fibrous root system and spreads by underground rhizomes. Young saplings have smooth, green bark; older trees have deep, furrowed, shaggy, dark bark with flat-topped ridges. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 7 to 21 leaflets. Black locust commonly occurs in disturbed habitats like pastures, degraded woods, thickets, old fields, and roadsides

19 BLACK WALNUT Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The Eastern Black Walnut (species: Juglans nigra) is a tree in the Hickory family that is prized for its high value wood. It is a close relative of the "English Walnut" (also called the Persian Walnut) which is the primary Walnut species for edible Walnuts. It is native to much of central and eastern North America and has been introduced into Europe for several centuriesEnglish Walnut The fruits of the Black walnut are edible but have smaller meats and are harder to harvest than those of the English walnut. Black walnut fruits are harvested mostly from wild trees.

20 BUR OAK Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The Tree: Native throughout the state on a great variety of soil types, it is drought resistant, perfectly hardy, slow growing, and may live for as many as 400 years on the best sites. The bur oak has a tremendous tap root Wildlife Value: Excellent, used for cover and food (acorns, twigs, buds, bark) source to numerous wildlife, including waterfowl, marshbirds, shorebirds, upland game, song birds, rodents, game animals, and hoofed browsers

21 EASTERN WHITE PINE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Needles soft, flexible, blue- green; 2"-4" long, 3-sided, in bundles of five. Evergreen.

22 EASTERN HEMLOCK Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Native Americans used the bark of the hemlock, which has a high concentration of tannic acid, to make a tea that was used to treat coughs and to apply to cuts and wounds. The early settlers used it as a source of lumber and tannin, an industry that peaked between 1890 and 1910. Hundreds of leather tanneries were established in Eastern Canada and New England. Over the last several decades, the woolly adelgid, an insect pest from Asia, has decimated the hemlock stands of the southern Appalachianswoolly adelgid

23 HONEY LOCUST Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The scientific name of the honey locust tree is Gleditsia triacanthos inermis. It is a deciduous, perennial tree and is native to North America, especially the eastern regions. It is commonly called the Sweet Bean, Sweet Locust and Honeyshuck. The honey locust tree has a wide canopy and this helps grass to grow in its shade. It has a rapid growth rate and lives up to an average age of 100 years

24 KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Kentucky coffee tree is a large round-barked tree belonging to the legume family and reaches heights of 60 to 100 feet

25 NORTHERN CATALPA Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Farmers introduced Northern Catalpa to Ohio in order to produce large amounts of relatively lightweight timber for fenceposts, since the wood is very resistant to rotting. Its rapid growth rate assisted in this need (along with other trees, like Black Locust and Osage- Orange) until metal fenceposts were developed and largely replaced wooden fenceposts.

26 NORTHERN RED OAK Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Alternate, simple, 5 to 8 inches long, oblong in shape with 7 to 11 bristle- tipped lobes, sinuses extend 1/3 to 1/2 of the way to midvein, generally very uniform in shape, dull green to blue-green above and paler below.

27 OHIO BUCKEYE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Ohio Buckeye, the state tree of Ohio, is found primarily as an understory tree in the western half of Ohio, where the soils are more alkaline in pH. However, it is scattered throughout the eastern half of the state, except in extreme northeastern and extreme southeastern Ohio. Its lightweight wood is used in the production of artificial limbs, and the holding of a "buckeye nut" in one's pocket is considered good luck

28 RED MAPLE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Leaves simple, opposite, and palmate, with triangular lobes and doubly toothed edges; 2½"-4" long and nearly as wide. Surface unfolding reddish, gradually turning to green; paler underneath. Veins retain reddish tint all summer. Leafstalk red Fall Collor yellow, orange, or scarlet red.

29 RIVER BIRCH Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Although not of great commercial importance, manufacturers sometimes use it for furniture and woodenware. It also is planted for its ornamental value and is very effective in preventing stream bank erosion.

30 SASSAFRAS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The roots are used for tea and root beer; the leaves for thickening soups (gumbo).

31 SUGAR MAPLE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers is the most abundant of the seven maple species found in New York State, and is common throughout New England, the Lake States, Mid-Atlantic states, and several Canadian provinces. Its historical and economical importance, both in the production of maple syrup and as a timber species, has earned sugar maple its status as the official state tree of New York. The sugar maple leaf on the Canadian flag is evidence of this species' importance in Canada.

32 SWEET BIRCH Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The wood is also unique. When exposed to air it darkens to a color resembling mahogany and, in times past, was used as an inexpensive substitute for the more valued tropical wood

33 SYCAMORE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Although not the tallest, this probably is the largest in diameter of trees in the eastern United States The native sycamore has a grand branch display and its bark is unique among all trees - you can always identify a sycamore just by looking at the bark. The alternate maple- looking leaves are large and also unique to those familiar with sycamore.

34 TULIP POPLAR Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The tulip poplar (Lirodendroan tulipifera) was designated official state tree of Kentucky in 1994.

35 VIRGINIA PINE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Virginia Pine – Pinus virginiana – dark green needles are 1 ½” – 3” long in twisted pairs; strong branches enabling it to hold heavy ornaments; strong aromatic pine scent; a popular southern Christmas tree

36 WHITE ASH Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The white ash is also known as American Biltmore or cane ash. This tree is most famous for being the best wood for baseball bats and other sports equipment such as tennis racquets, hockey sticks, polo mallets, and playground structures. The reasons for white ash being the most popular wood for these items is that it is tough and does not break under large amounts of strain. This wood can be bent into different shapes without losing its strength and is quite light. There are numerous other uses for white ash wood including church pews, bowling alley flooring, garden and porch furniture, and cabinets.

37 WHITE OAK Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The acorns of the White Oak are prized by wildlife and were used by Native Americans as food. They are the sweetest acorn of the Oaks and deer will eat them before any other acorn. As long as there are White Oak acorns remaining other acorns will remain pretty much untouched

38 POISON IVY BEWARE!! Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers A woody vine that may occur as a weed of landscapes, woods, fencerows, pastures, and hay fields. Poison ivy is the major cause of allergenic dermatitis in the eastern United States, which causes inflammation, blistering, and itching of the skin. The plant sap contains a chemical called urushiol, which is found within ducts in the leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of this weed. When poison ivy plants are bruised or damaged, this chemical is emitted onto the leaf and stem surfaces where humans and animals may come into contact with it.

39 POISON SUMAC BEWARE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

40 POISON OAK BEWARE!! Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Poison oak has leaves that look like oak leaves, usually with three leaflets but sometimes up to seven leaflets per leaf group. It grows as a vine or a shrub. Poison oak is more common in the western United States, but it is also found in the eastern United States and, rarely, in the Midwest.

41 Common Plants to Kentucky 1. Creeping Flox13. Elderberry 2. Marsh Marigold14. Silky Dogwood; pictured below 3. Spider Lily15. Indigo Bush 4. Meadow Flox16. Virginia Sweetspire 5. Purple Milkweed17. Red Chokeberry 6. Wild Bergamont18. Black Chokeberry 7. Blue Vervain19. Carolina Buckthorn 8. Rattlesnake Master20. Switch Grass 9. Willow Aster 10. Swamp Aster 11. Virginia Wild Rye 12. River Oats Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

42 CREEPING FLOX Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers In spring, creeping phlox plants produce small flowers in dense clusters. If massed together as a groundcover, creeping phlox plants make a powerful landscaping statement. The colors available are red, white, blue, pink, rose, lavender, purple or variegatedgroundcovervariegated

43 MARSH MARIGOLD Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris Family: Buttercup (Ranunculaceae) Habitat: swamps, stream edges Height: 8-24 inches Flower size: 1 to 1-1/2 inches across Flower color: yellow Flowering time: April to June Origin: native

44 SPIDER LILY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The leaves of Spider Lily grow in 6 leaf clusters and are present in spring but are gone by the time of flowering in the summer season. The flower stem is about 2 feet high and each stem has several flowers.

45 MEADOW FLOX Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Common name: Meadow Phlox Mauve-pink flower heads on top of sturdy stems with thick, glossy leaves. The stems are somewhat hairy and sometimes have red mottling. Meadow Phlox blooms earlier than Tall Phlox (Phlox paniculata), has darker green leaves and better mildew resistance. Flowers are fragrant and attract butterflies and hummingbirds.

46 PURPLE MILKWEED Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Importance as a caterpillar food source: Like all milkweeds, purple milkweed is a food source for the Monarch caterpillar. Plant for plant, purple milkweed does not produce as much foliage as other milkweeds, such as swamp milkweed, and therefore does not provide as great a food source for caterpillars.

47 WILD BERGAMONT Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The nectar of the flowers attracts long- tongued bees, bee flies, butterflies, skippers, and hummingbird moths. Among the long-tongued bees, are such visitors as bumblebees, Miner bees, Epeoline Cuckoo bees, and large Leaf-Cutting bees

48 BLUE VERVAIN Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The blue vervain or verbena is a creeping perennial of the mint family, bearing numerous, small lilac-blue flowers. The term vervain comes from the Celtic ferfaen, from fer (to drive away) and faen (a stone), referring to the plants historical use in treating kidney stones. Verbena hastata is native to North America and is incredibly similar in appearance and properties to its European cousin Verbena officinalis, whom it is often mistaken for. It grows with wild abandon in the Great Plains section of America, and can be found elsewhere on prairies, in meadows, and open woodlands. The Dakota tribe’s name for it translates as "medicine". It was used by Native Americans for colds, coughs, fevers, and stomach cramps.

49 RATTLESNAKE MASTER Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers This unique plant is a botanical enigma. The leaves look like yucca, and the flowers appear to be from an alien planet. It’s actually a member of the Parsley Family. The distinctive, waxy-green foliage lends the plant a bit of an unusual air, and the white "spiky golf ball" flowers that show up in July are truly unique. Makes an excellent specimen, planted individually or in groups of three. Native Americans brewed a tea of the root as an antidote to rattlesnake venom. Does best in medium and dry limy soils, reaching a height of three to five feet. For best results, plant seeds in the fall It doesn't attract rattlesnakes! The name is derived from an old belief that the roots could be used to heal rattlesnake bites.

50 WILLOW ASTER Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers This native perennial plant is 2-5' tall, branching occasionally. The larger stems are occasionally reddish, and have lines of white hairs. The alternate leaves are up to 5½" long and ¾" across, becoming smaller and narrower as they ascend up the stems. They are lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or linear, and have smooth margins. Underneath, the leaves are whitish green with a reticulate network of fine veins that is quite conspicuous. The inflorescence is large and pyramidal, containing numerous daisy-like composite flowers from ½–1" across. Each flower has 20- 30 lavender or light blue ray florets surrounding numerous yellow disk florets that eventually become reddish purple. The blooming period occurs from early to mid-fall, and lasts about a month. There is no noticeable floral scent.

51 SWAMP ASTER Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers This native perennial wildflower is 1½–6' tall, branching occasionally along the upper half of its length. The rather stout stems are light green to reddish purple (often the latter), terete to slightly grooved, and evenly covered with stiff spreading hairs. The alternate leaves are up to 6" long and 1¾" across, becoming gradually smaller along the upper half of each plant

52 VIRGINIA WILD RYE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Several stink bugs are known to feed on Virginia Wild Rye (and many other plants), including Brochymena quadripustulata (Rough Stink Bug), Chinavia hilare (Green Stink Bug), Coenus delia (Stink Bug sp.; a.k.a. Coenus delius), and Euschistus servus (Brown Stink Bug). When Virginia Wild Rye grows near wetlands, the seedheads are sometimes eaten by ducks (the Mallard and Lesser Scaup), while Canada Geese feed on the foliage. Prior to the development of its awned seedheads, this grass is also palatable to cattle, horses, and other livestock.

53 RIVER OATS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The native range of River Oats is Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Illinois and Kansas, south to Florida and Texas. Formerly known as Uniola latifolia, this very attractive grass grows best in areas which are known to flood. The related Northern Sea Oats is also called River Oats, Inland Sea Oats, Wild Oats and Broadleaf Spike Grass

54 ELDERBERRY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Common Elderberry is a large shrub which can grow up to 16 feet tall. It usually grows in wet areas, such as marshes, or forest edges.shrubmarshes The leaves of elderberry have 5 to 11 leaflets (smaller mini-leaves) on a stem.leaflets Common Elderberry flowers are in clusters. Each flower in the cluster is tiny and white. They bloom in May and June. Flower clusters look a lot like the wildflower known as Queen Anne's Lace.clusters

55 SILKY DOGWOOD Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Silky Dogwood was known as kinnikinnick by the Indians who reportedly smoked the inner bark for its alleged tonic affect

56 INDIGO BUSH Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The Silky Dogwood is a shrub Dogwood that has a strongly multi- stemmed growth habit and is always found in nature as a shrub, rather than a tree. The vigorous growth of Silky Dogwood is optimized in moist to wet sites, but it adapts readily to dry soil conditions in fields and fence lines as well.

57 VIRGINIA SWEETSPIRE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers These plants are valued more for their deep-red fall foliage than for either the appearance or the aroma of their blossoms.

58 RED CHOKEBERRY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Clusters of small, white flowers in mid-spring; small, round bright red fruit in late summer and autumn; autumn color is red to reddish- purple.

59 BLACK CHOKEBERRY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Chokeberry fruit are very astringent and will not be eaten by birds, so they are ornamental through much of winter.

60 CAROLINA BUCKTHORN Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Ripe fruits are nearly black and enjoyed by birds. Some sources state that the fruits are sweet and edible for people in small quantities while other sources claim the fruits are mildly toxic.

61 NATIVE SWITCHGRASS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Switchgrass seed is planted for many purposes some of which are for forage, pasture, bio-fuels, erosion control and as an ornamental grass.

62 COMMON PLANTS AND SHRUBS USED IN LANDSCAPES 1. HOSTA 2. BLACK EYED SUSAN 3. KNOCK OUT ROSE 4. GERANIUMS 5. BUTTERFLY BUSH 6. SPIREA 7. DAISY 8. LILAC 9. YEWS 10. BOXWOOD HEDGE 11. SNAP DRAGONS 12. DAY LILY 13. WOOD LILY 14. JAPANESE MAPLE 15. Begonia 16. Impatients Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

63 HOSTA (VARIAGTED OR NORMAL) Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Hostas are herbaceous perennials, hardy

64 BLACK-EYED SUSAN Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Black-eyed Susans grow in open woods, gardens, fields, and roadsides. They grow quickly in just about any kind of soil.

65 KNOCKOUT ROSE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Breeding efforts began about 20 years ago and focused on developing repeat blooming, cold hardy roses that didn’t get disease, especially black spot

66 GERANIUMS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Geranium plants are easy to grow and do fit well in home gardens, container gardens, flowerbeds. They are beloved for their big, bright bloom and also because they are easy to grow and can grow anywhere

67 BUTTERFLY BUSH Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Butterfly bush is an introduced shrub from China that has been widely planted as an ornamental and butterfly plant throughout North America. Unfortunately, this popular garden plant is also highly invasive and spreads profusely by seed into disturbed and natural areas.

68 SPIREA Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers The interesting thing about these plants is you can plant them in full sun, some sun or even mostly shade.

69 DAISY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Where did the Daisy Flower Get its Name The word ‘daisy’ has an Anglo Saxon origin. It came from the Anglo Saxon words daes eage. The literal meaning of these words is ‘day’s eye’. It was so called, as the daisies open at dawn, just at the time, when the day is about to begin

70 LILAC Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers Lilacs are not high maintenance shrubs at all. They can grow incredibly tall, and they soak in the sun and provide excellent shade for those hot, summer days. With a little care and a little maintenance, the old wood will develop new roots and replenish for as long as they are taken proper care of

71 YEWS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

72 BOXWOOD HEDGE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

73 SNAP DRAGONS Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

74 DAY LILY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

75 WOOD LILY Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

76 JAPANESE MAPLE Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

77 BEGONIA Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers

78 IMPATIENT Fruits contain seeds and come from the flowers


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