Presentation on theme: "Personality Chapter Eleven: Personality and Its Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Personality Chapter Eleven: Personality and Its Assessment Module Twenty-Five:Psychodynamic & Humanistic Perspectives
2 What is Personality?An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
3 The Psychodynamic Perspective: Sigmund Freud Denial, regress, repress, etc.Founder of psychoanalysisProposed the first complete theory of personalityA person’s thoughts and behaviors (personality) emerge from tension generated by unconscious motives and unresolved childhood conflicts (many sexual).
4 Psychoanalysis & Psychodynamic Perspective Freud’s theory of personalityAlso a therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight into one’s thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflictsA more modern view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory but rejects other aspectsRetains the importance of the unconscious mindLess emphasis on unresolved childhood conflicts
5 The Psychodynamic Perspective: Freud’s View of the Mind Free Association:Freudian technique of exploring the unconscious mind by having the person relax and say whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing.Freud’s alternative to hypnosis.
6 Different consciousness’ of the mind Conscious mind:The thoughts and feelings one is currently aware ofPreconscious mind:Holds thoughts and memories not in one’s current awareness but can easily be retrievedUnconscious mind:A region of the mind that includes unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.Open patients to these unwanted memories, accept them, and become better!
7 Freud’s Concepts of the: Id, Ego, and Superego The part of personality that consists of unconscious energy from basic aggressive and sexual drivesOperates on the “pleasure principle” - the id demands immediate gratificationIs present from birthEx: newborns cry for whatever they need!
8 Superego EgoThe part of personality that consists of internalized ideals and standardsOne’s conscience; focuses on what the person “should” doLargely conscious part of personality.Mediates demands of id, superego, and reality.Operates on the reality principal.Satisfies id’s desires in ways that will bring more pleasure that pain.
9 Id: Superego: Ego: child parent adult These classifications, Freud says, can help us understand the mind.Which is the child, parent, and adult?Id:childSuperego:parentEgo:adult
11 More Freud!!! Don’t forget about: Defense Mechanisms Means by which Freud believed the ego protects itself by reducing anxiety; unconsciously distorts realityDon’t forget about:Repression, regression, and denial
12 RepressionPuts anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories into the unconscious mindThe basis for all other defense mechanismsRegressionAllows an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable, infantile stage of lifeDenialLets an anxious person refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening
13 Yup, even more Freud! Rationalization Reaction formation Displaces real, anxiety-provoking explanations with more comforting justifications for one’s actionsDisplacementShifts an unacceptable impulse toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or personReaction formationReverses an unacceptable impulse, causing the person to express the opposite of the anxiety-provoking, unconscious feeling.ProjectionDisguises threatening feelings of guilty anxiety by attributing the problems to others
14 Psychosexual StagesIn Freudian theory, the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focused on different parts of the bodyDevelops in the first five or six yearsThe stages include: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genitalA person can become “fixated” or stuck at a stage, leading to problems as an adult
15 Freud’s Stages of Development 1.) Oral StagePleasure comes from chewing, biting, and sucking.Weaning can be a conflict at this stage.2.) Anal StageGratification comes from bowel and bladders functions.Potty training can be a conflict at this stage.
16 Freud’s Stages of Development 3.) Phallic StageThe pleasure zone shifts to the genitals.Boys cope with incestuous feelings toward their mother and rival feelings toward their dad (Oedipus conflict).4.) Latency StageSexual feelings are dormant.Child identifies with and tries to mimic the same sex parent to learn gender identity.5.) Genital StageBegins at puberty with the maturation of sexual interests
17 Freud’s Stage of Development: Write this please!
18 The Psychodynamic Perspective: Neo-Freudians Followers of Freud’s theories but developed theories of their own in areas where they disagreed with FreudInclude Adler, Jung, and Horney
19 Alfred Adler ( )Agreed with Freud on the importance of early childhood but thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensionsBelieved psychological problems were the result of feelings of inferiorityInferiority Complex:A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
20 Carl Jung (Yoong) ( )Believed that humans share a collective unconsciousJung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our ancestorsInformation everyone knows from birthArchetypes – universal symbols found in stories, myths, and art
21 Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) Found psychoanalysis negatively biased against womenBelieved cultural/social variables are the foundation of personality development
22 The Psychodynamic Perspective: Assessing Personality
23 Projective TestsPersonality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one’s inner thoughts and feelingsInclude:Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Rorschach Inkblot Test
24 Thematic Rorschach Apperception Inkblot Test Test A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenesThe person makes up a story of a picture they are shownMost widely used projection testPersonality test that seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of 10 inkblots
25 Updating Freud’s Theory Most psychodynamic psychologists agree:Sex is not the basis of personality.People do not “fixate” at various stages of development.Much of a person’s mental life is unconscious.People struggle with inner conflicts, and childhood experiences shape us.
26 Looking at Personality Through: The Humanist Perspective A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience and the individual’s freedom to choose and capacity for personal growthStudies fulfilled and healthy individuals rather than troubled people
27 Abraham Maslow ( )Humanistic psychologist who developed the hierarchy of needsBelieved that self-actualization is the ultimate psychological need
28 Hierarchy Self-Actualization of needs Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs, proceeding through safety needs and then to psychological needsHigher-level needs won’t become active until lower-level needs have been satisfied.According to Maslow, the need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potentialCharacteristics include:Self aware and self acceptingOpen, spontaneous, loving, and caringNot paralyzed by other’s opinionsFocused on a particular task
34 Carl Rogers ( )Humanist psychologist who stressed the importance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth
35 Roger’s Person-Centered Approach Unconditional Positive RegardAn attitude of total acceptance toward another person despite their faults and failingsGenuinenessFreely expressing one’s feelings and not being afraid to disclose details about oneselfEmpathySharing thoughts and understandingListening and reflecting the other person’s feelings
36 Assessing Personality and the Self: Humanistic Measures Evaluating the Perspective:Humanism has influenced therapy, child-rearing, and the workplaceLaid the foundation for positive psychologyHumanistic measures of personality center on evaluating a person’s self concept--all of our thought and feelings about ourselvesAnswer the question “Who Am I?”