Presentation on theme: "As America moved closer and closer to the next Presidential Election, the hostility between pro-slavery and anti-slavery grew more and more intense. In."— Presentation transcript:
As America moved closer and closer to the next Presidential Election, the hostility between pro-slavery and anti-slavery grew more and more intense. In 1859 you have John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry. Hoping to start a slave uprising John Brown and his men raided a federal arsenal and held captive 60 leading figures of the area. This was put down by Colonel Robert E. Lee Then mobs in the south assaulted those who held anti- slavery views.
Democrats- Stephen Douglas Wanted territories to decide for themselves whether or not it would become a free or slave state Southern Democrats were not happy with this choice so the party split and they chose John Breckinridge Slavery should be brought into Americas territory. Republicans – Abraham Lincoln Does not want slavery in territories but did not want to erase slavery all together. Constitutional Union Party – John Bell Ignored the issue of slavery all together
Lincoln won the Presidential Election! Won 180 electoral votes Received 39% of the popular vote Only received 1,926 votes from the South 15 Slave states were furious! Even though Lincoln promised not to erase the institution of slavery they did not believe him.
With Lincoln winning the election, the South felt like they had lost their political voice. Some called upon their states to secede from the Union. They wanted to keep their culture and lifestyle. December 20, 1860 South Carolina became the first state to secede. By March of 1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had all seceded.
The states that had seceded from the Union joined together in Montgomery, Alabama to form a Confederacy. The constitution closely resembled that of the United States with some small differences. President – Jefferson Davis They created a new flag known as the Stars and Bars.
Members of Congress, those in various federal departments, and even those in the Presidents cabinet started turning in their resignations. Seemed like the federal government was melting away! All before Lincoln even took office.
On March 4 th, Lincoln gives his inaugural address. Urged Confederate. states to return Assures that it is not his intention to abolish slavery and would uphold the fugitive slave act Promised to protect federal property even though they left the Union.
Fort Sumter in South Carolina was one of the last few in Union hands by the time Lincoln took office. Confederate forces were now demanding that they either surrender or face an attack. With supplies running low Major Anderson wrote to Lincoln for help. What should Lincoln do?
Lincoln decided to send provisions on unarmed boats to Fort Sumter. Jefferson Davis’s reaction – fire on the fort! April 12, 1861 Confederate men began shelling Fort Sumter. It lasted 36 hrs before Anderson surrendered. Not a single American soldier was killed, but it marked the start of the Civil War
On April 17 th, Virginia was unwilling to fight against other Southern states and therefore seceded. Virginia was a huge gain for the Confederacy. It was the most populated and the most industrialized. However, counties in west Virginia were anti-slavery and they seceded from Virginia, creating a new state for the Union – West Virginia in 1863.
In May, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina join the Confederacy. Slave states remaining in the Union – Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri. What do you think are some advantages of the North and of the South for this upcoming war?
Population – 21 million in the north vs. 9 million in the south. Industry – Almost all industry was in the north. South did not have a single rifle works Railroads were twice as dense. Navy Lincoln proved to be a good leader.
First-rate generals Soldiers were better horsemen and riflemen Most fighting on its own territory (home-field advantage) Objective– Fighting for independence Confederate Plan: Fight a defensive war. Encouraged to invade the north if the opportunity presents itself
Main objective – to preserve the Union Plan – Use navy to blockade the southern ports Split the Confederacy in two along the Mississippi River Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia Known as the Anaconda Plan
An army of 30,000 Union troops marched towards Richmond, Virginia. Only 100 miles from Washington D.C. Along the way Union soldiers came upon a Confederate army near a little creek of Bull Run. Lincoln commanded General Irvin McDowell to attack. The attack began on July 21 st 1861 The Union army had the upper hand until Confederate reinforcements arrived. This turned the tide of battle ending in the first victory for the South.
General Thomas Jackson
April 25, 1862 Farragut took control of New Orleans for the Union, the most important port city in the Confederacy. On the eastern side, Lincoln gets frustrated with General George McClellan for not marching onto Richmond. McClellan was known to be slow and cautious.
In the spring of 1862 McClellan finally decides he is ready to march onto Richmond. After a series of battles against Robert E. Lee and Jackson, McClellan backed away from Richmond even though the south had fewer soldiers and suffered higher casualties.
It was during these battles that the personalities of these Generals became known. Jackson gains a reputation as a brilliant general. He was strong, tough, and calm on the battlefield. Lee was known to be determined and a bit unorthodox. His tactics unnerved McClellan to retreat.
After McClellan’s retreat, Lee made plans to move against Washington DC. Luckily for McClellan, a corporal discovered that Lee and Jackson’s armies were separated for the time being. McClellan decided to attack and the two armies fought on September 17 near a creek called Antietam.
The battle ended in a draw, but the Confederacy retreated the next day due to dwindling numbers. Much to the chagrin of Lincoln, McClellan did not pursue them. Many believed that if he did the war could have ended then and there. This battle proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American history. Casualties totaled more than 26,000. As many as the War of 1812 and the war with Mexico combined. Lincoln ends up firing McClellan a couple months later.
A growing number of Americans were wondering why the Union was having a hard time dealing with the Confederacy. By the fall of 1862 the tide seemed to be turning against the Union. Many in the north said that the war was futile. The cost of lives and money was a waist and to let the Confederacy have their own nation. These groups of people were known as Copperheads.
Some of these people would discourage men from enlisting in the army and would even try to convince soldiers to desert. In response Lincoln decided to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in many states. This meant that people could be placed in prison without proof as to why they are there. As a result more than 13,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers were arrested and held without trial. Supreme Court Chief Justice declared that Lincoln had gone beyond his constitutional powers. Lincolns’ actions had set a precedent that expanded presidential powers during war or for “national security”.
Due to heavy casualties and widespread desertions, both the Confederacy and the Union established conscription. All men between the ages of 20-45 could be drafted. However you could avoid conscription by either paying $300 to the government or hire a substitute to go in your place. “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.”
With the growing number of dissent in the north and Abolitionists at his back about ending slavery, Lincoln decided that the Union needed another motive to continue fighting and win the war.
Gave the war a high moral purpose. Prevented other nations from joining or recognizing the Confederacy as a nation. Allowed blacks into the military. Made the Confederacy more determined than ever to fight to preserve its way of life. Ended the option of compromise with the Confederacy – it was now a fight to the death.
Southern Shortages Loss of manpower (from soldiers to slaves) to work in the fields as well as the blockade made food hard to come by. Other needed items were short in supply as well. Clothes, ammunition, rifles, etc. were hard to come by and many women did their best to make many of these items by hand. The factories in the north saw a boom in demand due to the war. Unfortunately corruption followed. Prices rose but wages did not. And they started using shoddy material but sold them at high prices. Northern Growth
In May of 1863, the South defeated the North at Chancellorsville, Virginia. It was a great victory but soon after on May 2, a heavy blow befell the Confederates. On his return from a patrol, Confederate guards mistook Stonewall Jackson for a Yankee and shot him in the arm. A surgeon amputated his arm but he caught pneumonia and died on May 10.
Before Jackson’s death, he and Lee were a great team. The two of them worked very well together. However, Lee must continue on. With the Confederates holding the military advantage, Lee wants to invade the North. He hopes that a victory on northern soil will help sway politics in the north towards pro-Southern Democrats. Thus he pushes forward into Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Gettysburg was an unplanned one. Many of the Confederate soldiers led by A.P. Hill were barefoot and heard of shoe supplies in the town of Gettysburg. Along the way they ran into Union cavalry under Officer John Buford. Buford quickly ordered his men to take defensive positions on the hills and ridges surrounding the town.
Shooting soon attracted reinforcement from both sides. The North was soon under the command of General George Meade, and the South under Lee. The Confederates took control of the town. Lee knew, however, that the battle would not be won until the North yield their positions up on Cemetery Ridge.
The day started with 90,000 Yankees and 75,000 Rebels. Under Lee’s orders, Confederate men under Longstreet attacked those on Cemetery Ridge. Union Colonel Chamberlain and his men defended the ridge at all costs. Once his men ran out of ammunition he ordered a bayonet charge. Rebels exhausted from fighting uphill and the 25 mile march the previous day surrendered in droves.
Lee ordered an artillery barrage on the middle of Union lines. For 2hrs the exchange occurred from both sides. Once it became silent Lee insisted General Pickett and his men press forward. Northern artillery soon fell upon them as they attacked uphill. Devastated the Confederacy staggered back. This is known as Pickett’s charge.
Lee then ordered a cavalry attack circling around the right flank of Meade’s forces. Instead of surprising Meade they came upon more Union troops. The South lost the battle and Lee gave up hopes of invading the North. This battle was considered the turning point in the war. The Confederacy never recovered from the losses of Gettysburg.
Vicksburg, Mississippi was one of only two Confederate holdouts remaining on the Mississippi River. If Union forces take them they control the river. To prepare for an attack, Grant sends men out to destroy rail lines in the center of the state. Thus drawing attention and soldiers away from Vicksburg.
Grant was now able to land infantry south of the port and in 18 days they sacked the states capital city, Jackson. Grant and his troops then rush to Vicksburg. Grant realized he could not quickly take the city so he set up for a siege. The Union began a steady barrage of artillery shelling from both the river and land.
The siege had been going on for about a month when food supplies starting running so low that people began eating dogs. Confederate soldiers finally told their commanding officer, “If you can’t feed us, you’d better surrender.” On July 3 rd the Confederates surrendered and the city fell on the 4 th. 5 days later the last holdout on the Mississippi fell, thus cutting the Confederacy in two.
In March of 1864, Lincoln appoints Ulysses S. Grant the hero of Vicksburg and commander of all Union armies. Grant then moves on to face Lee in the East. His plan is to immobilize Lee’s army. He fought battle after battle losing twice as many men as Lee. However the North could afford it and the South could not.
While Grant faces Lee in Virginia, William T. Sherman would march south and raid Georgia. The goal is to keep the Confederacy from reinforcing Lee in Virginia. Also, Lincoln needs a major victory if he is to be re-elected to a second term.
As Sherman and his men moved closer to Atlanta, it’s citizens could hear war waging at Kennesaw. They soon started to evacuate the city. On July 22, 1864, Atlanta fell to Sherman and his men, thus neutralizing the rail lines and supply hub. After the evacuation of the city, Sherman burned most of the buildings, military or not. He was a big believer in total war.
Sherman then marches from Atlanta to Savannah. Sherman’s goal is to scare it’s citizens so bad that they would abandon the Confederate cause and not want war for years to come. He creates a swath of destruction 300 miles long and 20-60 miles wide. Houses and fields are burned, railroads torn up, and carcasses of cattle lined the road.
http://www.history.com/ topics/shermans- march/videos#shermans -terrifying-tactics http://www.history.com/ topics/shermans- march/videos#shermans -terrifying-tactics On December 20 1864, Savannah fell to Sherman and his men. Sherman then moves north to aid Grant. He brings with him 25,000 former slaves eager for freedom.
By late March of 1865, Grant began approaching Richmond from the west while Sherman came from the south. On April 2, Lee was overcome by Grant at the battle of Petersburg. Upon hearing this news President Davis and his government abandoned Richmond and burned it to the ground. On April 9, 1865, the Confederates surrendered at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
Five days after Lee surrendered, Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre. While there John Wilkes Booth comes up behind the president shooting him in the back of the head. Lincoln died the following morning on April 15. His body was carried from Washington to Springfield, Illinois on a funeral train. 7 million Americans came to mourn the president.
The southern states were forced to rejoin the Union as conquered territories not as states. By the end of the year the 13 th Amendment was ratified; abolishing the institution of slavery. About 625,000 Americans died in the Civil War. More than World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam war combined. Questions remained: How to restore the southern states to the Union and how to integrate 4 million newly freed African Americans into national life?