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RTLB REVISION RICHMOND 2006 Don Brown Charlotte Thomson.

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Presentation on theme: "RTLB REVISION RICHMOND 2006 Don Brown Charlotte Thomson."— Presentation transcript:

1 RTLB REVISION RICHMOND 2006 Don Brown Charlotte Thomson

2 WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT SPECIAL NEEDS? The difference is in intervention intensity.The difference is in intervention intensity. More explicit teachingMore explicit teaching More time for overlearningMore time for overlearning More continuous (curriculum based) assessmentMore continuous (curriculum based) assessment Adaptations to materials or programmesAdaptations to materials or programmes Explicit teaching of learning strategiesExplicit teaching of learning strategies More experience of transferMore experience of transfer There is no special pedagogy for special education. Taken from Lewis & Norwich, 2000.

3 CRITICAL VARIABLES Academic engaged learning timeAcademic engaged learning time Allocated time. Time on task. Active involvement in meaningful tasks. Clarity and academic focusClarity and academic focus Level of difficulty of materialLevel of difficulty of material FeedbackFeedback Taken from Gettinger & Stoiber,

4 FOCUS UPON WHAT IS IMPORTANT ERO have brought a focus on RTLB practice. Fundamentally, their concerns have to do with data. How can RTLB show they are effective? How well do RTLB track progress?

5 OUR ANALYSIS RTLB know how to do these things. Pressure of general practice may lead to short-cuts. Who gets the blame when ERO visit? How can we get around this problem? What are recent developments that can help?

6 BACK TO BASICS There are three ways of ensuring effective work: 1.Effective interactions with teachers (and parents) 2.Effective data gathering in an ecological model 3.Intervention integrity.

7 RELATIONSHIPS Recent research by Charlotte Thomson is showing that relationships with teachers is criticalRecent research by Charlotte Thomson is showing that relationships with teachers is critical RTLB and teachers report this as a high-level component of the problem solving collaborative processRTLB and teachers report this as a high-level component of the problem solving collaborative process The entry meeting and subsequent teamwork will guide progress when a sound relationship existsThe entry meeting and subsequent teamwork will guide progress when a sound relationship exists Effective casework through collaborative problem solving is now possible.Effective casework through collaborative problem solving is now possible.

8 AN EFFECTIVE ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Will focus upon the student in contextWill focus upon the student in context Will include an analysis of the contextWill include an analysis of the context Will compare and contrast the target student with the general class behaviour patternsWill compare and contrast the target student with the general class behaviour patterns Will identify the STP for the student in context.Will identify the STP for the student in context.

9 ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT a frequently misunderstood concept Often a classroom assessment is done (TIES – FAAB) Then an IEP is set out to establish a programme But an IEP has no place for an ecological assessment! No matter how useful, an IEP focuses only on the student. What else can we do?

10 ASSESSMENT This is an area of focus in current work It involves both academic and social behaviour It includes the variables in the environment which act as setting events for those behaviours.

11 Specify the problem It is important to get a clear specification of the problem You may have to help the teacher clarify an ill defined problem For this you will need data – an issue ERO reported

12 Problem Definition Be careful about global definitions: Poor self esteem (whatever that is) Lack of motivation Oppositional defiance disorder (endemic in the French Resistance) Poor progress (in whatever) ADHD

13 Perceptions of Problems How do we frame up behaviour? Consider these behaviours associated with : Hyperactivity (Symptoms) Giftedness (Qualities) Poorly sustained attentionPoorly sustained attention Low task persistence when no immediate consequencesLow task persistence when no immediate consequences Impulsivity, inability to delay gratificationImpulsivity, inability to delay gratification Inability to adhere to instructionsInability to adhere to instructions More active & restless than mostMore active & restless than most Difficulty abiding by rulesDifficulty abiding by rules Poor attention, easily boredPoor attention, easily bored Low tolerance on tasks that seem irrelevantLow tolerance on tasks that seem irrelevant Judgement lags behind intellectual developmentJudgement lags behind intellectual development Tendency toward power struggles with authoritiesTendency toward power struggles with authorities High activity level, may require less sleepHigh activity level, may require less sleep Questions rules and customsQuestions rules and customs Taken from Davis, Sumara & Luce-Kaplan, 2000

14 Gathering Data The devil is in the detail! The student has no friends – so: From the teacher When does he work with other students? With whom does he have lunch? Where does he sit in class – in a group or on his own? How often do you ask him to work in a group or team? Does his interaction with others differ by time or subject? Describe his behaviours that suggest he doesn’t have friends

15 Gathering Data The devil is in the detail! The student has no friends – so: From the student Who are his friends? With whom does he play at school? At home? Who does he invite to his birthday party? Who does he like working with in class? Does he know how to join in?

16 Gathering Data The devil is in the detail! The student has no friends – so: From the parents Does he have other children over to p lay? Can they invite other children to sleep over? Do they help him to join clubs or teams? Do they know how to help him to make friends?

17 Gathering Data The devil is in the detail! The student has no friends – so: From observation Are there any put-downs toward him? Does he show signs of trying to join in? Is he included in groups or teams? What is the frequency of interactions with others? What is on-off task/engaged time frequency What is the class mean for on-off task and engagement?

18 TRIANGULATION Consider how these elements have combined to form a picture of the case; data from multiple sources TeacherStudentParentsObservation These bring a degree of order to a global referral

19 The Teaching-Learning Triangle Teacher Knowledge of Student Teacher Skill and Curriculum Knowledge Strategic Task Setting Student’s Cultural Capital and Capacity Instructional Match

20 FUNCTIONAL ASESSMENT Finding a functional relationship of a behaviour with the environment in which it occursFinding a functional relationship of a behaviour with the environment in which it occurs FAAB focuses on antecedents as well as consequences of a behaviourFAAB focuses on antecedents as well as consequences of a behaviour Assessment is not mutually exclusive of interventionAssessment is not mutually exclusive of intervention Finding supports to maintain positive student performanceFinding supports to maintain positive student performance

21 PLANNING INTERVENTIONS Should be based on a careful analysis of learning contextShould be based on a careful analysis of learning context Those working directly with the student are in the best position to make judgments about quality, intensity and frequency to achieve academic successThose working directly with the student are in the best position to make judgments about quality, intensity and frequency to achieve academic success Careful analysis and problem solving will identify starting pointsCareful analysis and problem solving will identify starting points Decisions on what will work best should be made after a careful study of need, then documented and evaluated.Decisions on what will work best should be made after a careful study of need, then documented and evaluated. From FAAB p. 21

22 FAAB and TIES 11 FAAB is a Re-written TIES IIFAAB is a Re-written TIES II It is directed at obtaining a functional assessmentIt is directed at obtaining a functional assessment Functional assessment is now required in the USAFunctional assessment is now required in the USA It has the same components as TIES IIIt has the same components as TIES II

23 FAAB PROCEDURE FOR INTERVENTION Describe in specific, observable terms what the student does and what you agree you want him to do.Describe in specific, observable terms what the student does and what you agree you want him to do. Identify what needs to be changed to achieve the goal.Identify what needs to be changed to achieve the goal. Specify the intervention actions.Specify the intervention actions. Identify evidence of success.Identify evidence of success.

24 FAAB And The Problem Solving Cycle FAAB follows a problem solving approachFAAB follows a problem solving approach It offers an ecological foundation for interventionIt offers an ecological foundation for intervention It has a purpose, just as TIES IIIt has a purpose, just as TIES II It is not a ritual to follow; nor is it meant to be used in isolationIt is not a ritual to follow; nor is it meant to be used in isolation

25 MISUSES of TIES and FAAB Using it without understanding the conceptsUsing it without understanding the concepts Failing to identify the purpose with the teacherFailing to identify the purpose with the teacher Failing to identify the components most likely to target concerns reported by the teacherFailing to identify the components most likely to target concerns reported by the teacher Ignoring the analysis and moving to a deficit model as a default behaviourIgnoring the analysis and moving to a deficit model as a default behaviour

26 AGREEMENTS FROM THE RESEARCH

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28 Use of task- related knowledge Presenting task Use of task- related knowledge Cognitive processing of task Metacognitive processing of task Self-system Processing of presenting task Cognitive processing of task Metacognitive processing of task High value High probability of success Positive affect High task motivation Engaged in task Low value Low probability of success Negative affect Low task motivation Engaged in compensatory activity Taken from Marzano, 1998

29 KNOWLEDGE GOALS: How to gain information, understand and process it COGNITIVE GOALS: How to remember, recall, comprehend, analyze and transform information and ideas METACOGNITIVE GOALS: How to monitor their own learning, set goals and scrutinize beliefs Adapted from Marzano, 1998

30 CLASSROOM BEHAVIOUR “Behaviour can be an area of school life where we expect so much and teach so little” Galvin, Miller & Nash, 1998.

31 Perceptions of Problems Be aware of how people perceive behaviour Academic Errors Behaviour Errors The student is tryingThe student is trying Assume error is accidentalAssume error is accidental Provide assistanceProvide assistance Provide practice & feedbackProvide practice & feedback Assume student will learnAssume student will learn The student is not tryingThe student is not trying Assume error is deliberateAssume error is deliberate Provide negative consequencesProvide negative consequences Practice is not requiredPractice is not required Assume the student will make the right choice in the futureAssume the student will make the right choice in the future

32 Perceptions of Problems 2 Academic Behaviour Social Behaviour Assume student has learned the wrong wayAssume student has learned the wrong way Assume the student has been taught the wrong wayAssume the student has been taught the wrong way Identify & analyse the problemIdentify & analyse the problem Adjust presentation, focus on the rule, give feedbackAdjust presentation, focus on the rule, give feedback Assume the student will perform correctly in futureAssume the student will perform correctly in future Assume the student is refusing to cooperateAssume the student is refusing to cooperate Assume the student knows the right wayAssume the student knows the right way Provide more negative consequencesProvide more negative consequences Remove the student from the normal contextRemove the student from the normal context Assume the student has “learned” his lesson and will behave in futureAssume the student has “learned” his lesson and will behave in future

33 PROBLEM ANALYSIS Does the student have the necessary skills or controls?Does the student have the necessary skills or controls? How realistic are the teacher’s expectations?How realistic are the teacher’s expectations? To what do the student & teacher attribute the problem?To what do the student & teacher attribute the problem? To what extent are those attributions accurate?To what extent are those attributions accurate? How fair and consistent are the discipline procedures?How fair and consistent are the discipline procedures? How clear is the teacher about the desired behaviour?How clear is the teacher about the desired behaviour?

34 PLANNING Is there a balance of prevention and correction?Is there a balance of prevention and correction? Is there a contingency for crises?Is there a contingency for crises? Are expectations realistic?Are expectations realistic? Are expectations acceptable to all?Are expectations acceptable to all? Are expectations understood by all?Are expectations understood by all? Are expectations taught, reinforced and enforced?Are expectations taught, reinforced and enforced? Has the principle been considered?Has the principle been considered? Has the minimal sufficiency principle been considered?Has the minimal sufficiency principle been considered? Have students been taught self management?Have students been taught self management?

35 PREVENTION Involve students in how class norms will be set.Involve students in how class norms will be set. Arrange the room for comfort and management.Arrange the room for comfort and management. Ensure resources are available.Ensure resources are available. Follow the guidelines for instructional delivery.Follow the guidelines for instructional delivery. Ensure instructional match.Ensure instructional match. Demonstrate, practice, monitor and maintain.Demonstrate, practice, monitor and maintain. Model desired behaviours.Model desired behaviours. Remember feedback, understanding, regular evaluation and reflection.Remember feedback, understanding, regular evaluation and reflection.


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