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OGT Review Mr. Patty “Crunch Time”

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1 OGT Review Mr. Patty “Crunch Time”

2 Enlightenment Think change from absolutism to a more free government
17th century intellectual movement Worked to limit power of government and church. Locke believed job of govt. was to protect the natural rights of people or be overthrown. Enlightenment thinkers: -Locke= Natural Rights -Montesquieu= Separation of Powers -Voltaire=Freedom of speech/thought Enlightenment ideas led to: American Revolution, U.S. Constitution & Bill of Rights, French Revolution, Latin American Wars for Independence. Divine Right= Believe that God puts monarchs on throne Philosophe= French philosopher

3 Enlightenment Question
What was one idea that the leaders of the American Revolution shared with Enlightenment thinkers? A. Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for mother countries. B. The people have the right to overthrow their government if it abuses its powers. C. Governments may restrict freedom of speech and of the press during times of crisis. D. Factories and businesses should be owned by the government rather than by individuals

4 2)Primary and Secondary Sources
The use of primary and secondary sources of information includes an examination of the credibility of each source. The use of primary and secondary sources in the study of history includes an analysis of their credibility – that is, whether or not they are believable. This is accomplished by checking sources for:  The qualifications and reputation of the author;  Agreement with other credible sources;  Perspective or bias of the author (including use of stereotypes);  Accuracy and internal consistency; and  The circumstances in which the author prepared the source. Analyze and evaluate the credibility of primary and secondary sources.

5 Bias-One sided A newspaper prints an article on a controversial political issue. This article could be considered biased if its author A. formed logical conclusions based on fact. B. contacted supporters of only one side. C. presented statistical information on the issue. D. included information that had not been published before

6 Below are two points of view about a local landfill
Below are two points of view about a local landfill. From a local citizens group: “Unless the local landfill is closed down, the health of community residents will continue to suffer. The cost of finding a new landfill site is no longer the issue. Far more important are the proven health risks of toxic waste leakage.” From a county environmental safety official: “While there is always some health risk from landfills, the risk from our local landfill has proven to be very small. However, capacity is becoming a problem. Whatever the cost, we will need to find a new landfill site within the next year or the health of our citizens will become a real concern.” Which statement about the two points of view presented above is accurate? A. The point of view of the county official includes data to support it. B. The point of view of the citizens group is composed of facts. C. Both points of view fail to mention their sources of information. D. Both points of view include support from reliable sources of information

7 3.Historians develop theses and use evidence to support or refute positions
Historians are similar to detectives. They develop theses and use evidence to create explanations of past events. Rather than a simple list of events, a thesis provides a meaningful interpretation of the past by telling the reader the manner in which historical evidence is significant in some larger context. The evidence used by historians may be generated from artifacts, documents, eyewitness accounts, historical sites, photographs and other sources

8 Support or refute a thesis
A local politician believes that allowing graffiti artists to paint on a designated wall in a city park would reduce illegal graffiti in other parts of the city. Which statement would help support this thesis? A. Many people in the city do not approve of graffiti. B. Graffiti has appeared on buildings in many parts of the city. C. Illegal graffiti is not protected by the right to free speech. D. Similar programs have reduced illegal graffiti in other cities.

9 4) Historians analyze cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including multiple causation and long- and short-term causal relations When studying a historical event or person in history, historians analyze cause-and- effect relationships. For example, to understand the impact of the Great Depression, an analysis would include its causes and effects. An analysis also would include an examination of the sequence and correlation of events. How did one event lead to another? How do they relate to one another?

10 Cause and Effect What was the effect of the passage of Jim Crow laws in the United States in the late 19th century? A. Racial segregation was required by law in southern states. B. Native Americans were moved onto reservations. C. Restrictions were placed on business monopolies. D. Women were denied the right to vote in national elections

11 Cause and effect How did the U.S. government’s role in the economy change as a result of the Great Depression? A. The federal government had a diminished role in regulating economic activity. B. The federal government maintained the role it had in economic matters before the Great Depression. C. The federal government expanded its role in regulating economic activity and promoting economic growth D. The federal government transferred its role in economic affairs over to the state governments.

12 5)Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence reflects an application of Enlightenment ideas to the grievances of British subjects in the American colonies. The Declaration of Independence opens with a statement that the action the American colonies were undertaking required an explanation. That explanation begins with a brief exposition of Enlightenment thinking, particularly natural rights and the social contract, as the context for examining the recent history of the colonies Explain a grievance listed in the Declaration of Independence in terms of its relationship to Enlightenment ideas of natural rights and the social contract

13 Declaration of Independence
Which fundamental political idea is expressed in the Declaration of Independence? A)The government should guarantee every citizen economic security. B)The central government and state governments should have equal power. C)If the government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown. D)Rulers derive their right to govern from God and are therefore bound to govern in the nation’s best interest.

14 Declaration of Independence
In 1789, the French National Assembly issued the “Declaration of the Rights of Man,” based in part on the concepts expressed in the U.S. Declaration of Independence in Both documents reflected the Enlightenment belief that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens. What developments in France and the United States attempted to assure the implementation of this concept of government? A. drafting constitutional protections B. restoring monarchies across Europe C. gaining additional territory D. expanding the slave trade

15 6) The Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance provided the basis for temporary governance as a territory and eventual entry into the United States as states Basic rights of citizenship (e.g., religious liberty, right to trial by jury, writ of habeas corpus-you may have the body…brought before a judge to determine whether or not they are being held legally) were assured. These assurances were precursors to the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Slavery was prohibited in the Northwest Territory. This provision was later included in the Constitution as Amendment 13. State governments were to be republican in structure. This provision was repeated in the U.S. Constitution

16 Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important because it  A.  ensured universal suffrage for all males  B.  extended slavery north of the Ohio River  C.  provided a process for admission of new states to the Union  D.  established reservations for Native American Indians

17 7) Problems facing the national government under the Articles of Confederation led to the drafting of the Constitution of the United States. The framers of the Constitution applied ideas of Enlightenment in conceiving the new government. The national government, under the Articles of Confederation, faced several critical problems. Some dealt with the structure of the government itself. These problems included weak provisions for ongoing management of national affairs (a lack of a separate executive branch), a limited ability to resolve disputes arising under the Articles (a lack of a separate judicial branch) and stiff requirements for passing legislation and amending the Articles.

18 7-continued The Constitution of the United States was drafted using Enlightenment ideas to create a workable form of government. The Preamble and the creation of a representative government reflect the idea of the social contract. Articles I – III provide for a separation of powers in government. Article I also provides some limited protection of rights.

19 "We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; . . ." This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence were A. limitations of the principles underlying most European governments of the 1700’s. B. adaptations of the laws of Spanish colonial governments in North America. C. adoptions of rules used by the Holy Roman Empire. D. reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment.

20 8) The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers structured the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution of the United States represented a significant departure from the Articles of Confederation. The document required ratification by nine states for the national government to be established among the ratifying states. Proponents and opponents of the Constitution attempted to sway the deliberations of the ratifying conventions in the states. The proponents became known as Federalists and the opponents as Anti-Federalists

21 New York was a pivotal state in the ratification process and Federalists prepared a series of essays published in that state’s newspapers to convince New York to support the Constitution. These essays have become known as the Federalist Papers and they addressed issues such as the need for national taxation, the benefits of a strong national defense, the safeguards in the distribution of powers and the protection of citizen rights. What has become known as the Anti-Federalist Papers is a collection of essays from a variety of contributors. While not an organized effort as the Federalist Papers were, the Anti-Federalist Papers raised issues relating to the threats posed by national taxation, the use of a standing army, the amount of national power versus state power and the inadequate protection of the people’s rights.

22 “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this, you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.” This passage from the Federalist Papers refers to the need for  A.  a strong executive  B.  a system of checks and balances  C.  an independent military  D.  a national education system

23 9)The Bill of Rights 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
Derived from English law, ideas of the Enlightenment, the experiences of the American colonists, early experiences of self-government and the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. The Bill of Rights to the Constitution of the United States is derived from several sources. These range from the English heritage of the United States to the debates over the ratification of the Constitution.

24 “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic." -Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Which interpretation of the Bill of Rights does this statement illustrate? A. The needs of the government are more important than civil liberties. B. Constitutional protections of liberty are not absolute. C. The Supreme Court can eliminate freedoms listed in the Bill of Rights. D. The Bill of Rights does not safeguard individual liberties.

25 10)Industrial Revolution
Improved technology in agriculture increased output. Industrial Revolution begins in Great Britain. Many move from rural areas to cities to find work. Industrialization results in urbanization-growth of cities (poor living conditions=slums)‏ Working conditions in factories: dangerous, long hours, little pay. Women and children also worked in factories. Led to rise of organized labor- Unions (demand better pay, shorter hours, benefits)‏ Assembly Line allows for mass production, prices begin to fall. Middle Class begins to develop as the standard of living begins to rise.

26 Industrial Revolution Cont.
Populism & Progressivism are movements that develop in response to the poor living & working conditions. Populism-Rural Progressivism-Urban, middle class Immigration to the United States increases because of the availability of jobs. -Received low pay -Often established own section of city.

27 What problem arising from U.S.
industrialization did the progressive reformers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries want the federal government to address? A. use of child labor in the workplace B. unfair taxes on the wealthy C. restrictions on the use of natural resources D. lack of capital for railroad Expansion

28 11)Unregulated working conditions and violence toward supporters of organized labor
As a result of the changing nature of work, some members of the working class formed labor organizations (e.g., American Railway Union, American Federation of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World, United Mine Workers of America) to protect their rights. They sought to address issues such as working conditions, wages and terms of employment. Labor organizations also grew due to the violence toward supporters of organized labor (e.g., Great Railroad Strike, Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike

29 Why was the formation of labor unions an effect of U. S
Why was the formation of labor unions an effect of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s? A. Unions were needed to guarantee a steady supply of workers. B. Union membership was required for employment in new industries. C. Factory owners set up labor unions in order to control their large workforce. D. Unions organized industrial workers to protest unsafe working conditions and long workdays

30 12) Immigration, internal migration and urbanization transformed American life
Mass immigration at the turn of the 20th century made the country more diverse and transformed American life by filling a demand for workers, diffusing new traits into the American culture and impacting the growth of cities. Many people left their farms for the cities seeking greater job opportunities. The Great Migration marked the mass movement of African Americans who fled the rural South for the urban North. They sought to escape prejudice and discrimination and secure better-paying jobs. They helped transform northern cities economically (e.g., as workers and consumers) and culturally (e.g., art, music, literature).

31 The early 20th century saw a significant northward migration of African-Americans. During the 1920s, nearly 400,000 African-Americans settled in New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Many lived in large cities such as New York, Philadelphia and Chicago. Identify two economic effects of this migration on the United States. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

32 13) Racial discrimination
Following Reconstruction, old political and social structures reemerged and racial discrimination was institutionalized. The removal of federal troops from the South accompanied the end of Reconstruction and helped lead to the restoration of the Democratic Party’s control of state governments. With the redemption of the South, many reforms enacted by Reconstruction governments were repealed. Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the passage of Jim Crow laws. These state laws and local ordinances included provisions to require racial segregation, prohibit miscegenation, limit ballot access and generally deprive African Americans of civil rights

33 "Although important strides were made, Reconstruction failed to provide lasting guarantees of the civil rights of the freedmen.” Which evidence best supports this statement: A)passage of Jim Crow laws in the latter part of the 19th century B)ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments C)refusal of Southern States to allow sharecropping D)passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1866

34 14) Progressive Era Urban, middle class reaction
Wanted to address the ills of American society stemming from industrial capitalism, urbanization and political corruption. Industrial capitalism, urbanization and political corruption contributed to many of the problems in American society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

35 Journalists, called muckrakers, exposed political corruption, corporate and industrial practices, social injustice and life in urban America. Progressives introduced reforms to address the ills associated with industrial capitalism. Their efforts led to anti-trust suits (e.g., Northern Securities Company), antitrust legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act), railroad regulation (Hepburn Act), and consumer protection legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act). The Federal Reserve Act was passed to control the nation’s money supply and regulate the banking system. Conservation reforms included the creation of the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service and the passage of the Newlands Act. Progressives fought political corruption and introduced reforms to make the political process more democratic (e.g., initiative, referendum, recall, secret ballot, new types of municipal government, civil service reform, primary elections).

36 The United States Federal Reserve System was established to
A. provide loans to industrialists B. end the Great Depression C. provide for a balanced budget D. regulate the money supply

37 Answer The US Federal Reserve is responsible for setting the interest rates charged on loans through US banks. Lower interest rates result in “cheaper money” and a “looser” supply of money. Higher interest rates result in less loans being given and translate into a “tighter” money supply. The Federal Reserve will lower or raise rates in a continual effort to avoid inflation.

38 15) U.S. Imperialism:As a result of overseas expansion, the Spanish-American War and World War I, the United States emerged as a world power With the closing of the western frontier, Americans developed favorable attitudes toward foreign expansion. Pushed along by global competition for markets and prestige, an expanded navy and a sense of cultural superiority, the United States engaged in a series of overseas actions which fostered its move to global power status. The annexation of Hawaii followed by a successful conclusion to the Spanish-American War allowed the United States to join other nations in imperialist ventures

39 Imperialism Imperialism: strong nation has political, economic, & social control over a weaker nation. White Man's Burden- Idea that the west must civilize backward nations. Colonial Powers force their culture and political systems on their colonies. The colony existed to benefit the colonial power. Imperialism was fueled by the need for markets and resources for industrialization.

40 Imperialism Cont. U.S. becomes imperialist power after the Spanish- American War – U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippines American businesses fueled acquisition of Hawaii. President Teddy Roosevelt has “Carry a Big Stick” policy- U.S. builds Panama Canal and intervenes in Latin America. Results: - Japan modernizes to protect herself from imperialist take over - China is separated into Spheres of Influence. (U.S. supports Open Door Policy with China.)‏ -Struggles in African nations directly linked to past imperialist policies.

41 One factor that motivated U. S
One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the A. development of closer political ties with European nations. B. closing of China to all foreign trade. C. support of international peacekeeping operations. D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials.

42 World War I 4 MAIN: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism.
First Modern War: advanced weapons are used (Submarines, machine guns, tanks, planes, gas)‏ Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand immediate cause of the war. Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria. Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, U.S.

43 World War I Cont. U.S. involvement:
-initially neutral, sell supplies to both sides. -German unrestricted submarine war policy-reason for U.S. entry -U.S. involvement led to defeat of Central Powers -Great Migration-many African Americans move North for jobs in defense plans. -14 points=President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace (Not as harsh as Treaty of Versailles)‏ Treaty of Versailles=Ends WWI, very harsh towards Germany.

44 World War I Cont. Results: League of Nations est. to prevent war
-Fails (no power to prevent aggression, U.S. doesn't join)‏ Causes: Russian Revolution, Great Depression, Rise of Dictators, and WWII

45 During World War I, conscientious objectors to military service were often accused of disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were sentenced to prison. However, other conscientious objectors were willing to accept noncombatant service. The assignment of conscientious objectors to noncombatant service was an attempt by the government to A. promote ethnic diversity within the military. B. educate people about their constitutional rights. C. balance individual rights and the common good. D. encourage people to apply for conscientious objector status

46 Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause-Germany solely responsible for war. Germany must pay billions in war damages (reparations)‏ Severely limits size of German military. Germany cannot manufacture war materials. Germany lost all overseas colonies. Poland became an independent nation.

47 17) U.S. After WWI The United States pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. However, as a result of the national debate over the Versailles Treaty ratification and the League of Nations, the United States moved away from the role of world peacekeeper and limited its involvement in international affairs. After WWI, the United States emerged as a world leader and pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. President Wilson’s efforts partially helped shape the Treaty of Versailles, but debate over its terms and efforts to avoid foreign entanglements led to its defeat in the Senate and the United States’ decision not to join the League of Nations.

48 Between the Wars U.S. returns to isolationist policy- distraught over monetary and human cost of WWI Red Scare= fear of communism a. result of Communist revolution in Russia b. restricted immigration to the U.S. Harlem Renaissance- Glorification of the accomplishments of African Americans. a. Music, writers b. Part of the Civil Rights Movement following WWI 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote

49 Between the Wars- Causes of the Great Depression (1929-1941)
Bank Failures Overproduction Overspending Stock Market Crash FDR’s plan to combat the depression was called the New Deal.

50 17) Racial intolerance, anti-immigrant attitudes and the Red Scare contributed to social unrest after World War I. The Great Migration of African Americans Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities heightened racial tensions there and led to a series of urban race riots in Lynching and the enforcement of Jim Crow legislation continued in the South during the post war era. Racial intolerance also was seen in the revival of the Ku Klux Klan across the United States The Russian Revolution set off the Red Scare in the U.S.-It was a reaction to these perceived threats and led to the incarceration and deportation of many aliens

51 Which was a common factor in the
United States that caused the Red Scare following World War I and McCarthyism following World War II? A. racial tension in major cities B. signs of economic downturn C. fear of communist expansion D. the counterculture movement

52 18) An improved standard of living for many, combined with technological innovations in communication, transportation and industry, resulted in social and cultural changes and tensions Following World War I, the United States experienced a period of successful advances in industry and an economic boom that improved the standards of living for many Americans. Technological innovations in communication included commercial radio broadcasts, talking motion pictures, and wider circulation of newspapers and magazines. Growth of the suburbs, more freedom for youth, and a growing divide between rich and poor.

53 Which advance was largely
responsible for the growth of suburbs in the United States in the first 3 decades of the 20th century? A. the development of color televisions B. improvements in passenger airplanes C. widespread availability of automobiles D. the invention of the personal computer

54 Great Migration-500k African Americans move north.
19)Movements such as the Harlem Renaissance, African-American migration, women’s suffrage and Prohibition all contributed to social change The Harlem Renaissance was a celebration of African American culture and contributed to social change. The themes of African American art and literature gave pride to people of African heritage and increased awareness of the struggles related to intolerance and life in large urban centers Great Migration-500k African Americans move north. Women’s suffrage-19th Amendment Prohibition-18th Amendment

55 Although the 14th Amendment to
the Constitution extended the rights of citizenship to “all persons” born or naturalized in the United States, discrimination on the basis of gender still existed throughout much of the country during the late 1800s. Which was a consequence of this discrimination? A. the end of the military draft for women B. the growth of the women’s suffrage movement C. the beginning of sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters D. the continuation of efforts to end university admissions quotas

56 The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s was a period when African Americans A. left the United States in large numbers to settle in Liberia B. created noteworthy works of art and literature C. migrated to the West in search of land and jobs D. used civil disobedience to fight segregation in the Armed Forces

57 20) The Great Depression and the New Deal
The Great Depression was caused, in part, by the federal government’s monetary policies, stock market speculation and increasing consumer debt. The role of the federal government expanded as a result of the Great Depression. One of several factors leading to the Great Depression in the United States was the excessive amount of lending by banks. This fueled speculation and use of credit. The Federal Reserve attempted to curb these practices by constricting the money supply.

58 How did the U.S. government’s role in the economy change as a result of the Great Depression?
A. The federal government had a diminished role in regulating economic activity. B. The federal government maintained the role it had in economic matters before the Great Depression. C. The federal government expanded its role in regulating economic activity and promoting economic growth. D. The federal government transferred its role in economic affairs over to the state governments.

59 Federal Reserve-What is it?
The Federal Reserve System, often referred to as the Federal Reserve or simply "the Fed," is the central bank of the United States. It was created by the Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve was created on December 23, 1913, when President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law. Today, the Federal Reserve's responsibilities fall into four general areas. (next slide)

60 Federal Reserve-Continued
Conducting the nation's monetary policy by influencing money and credit conditions in the economy in pursuit of full employment and stable prices. Supervising and regulating banks and other important financial institutions to ensure the safety and soundness of the nation's banking and financial system and to protect the credit rights of consumers. Maintaining the stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk that may arise in financial markets. Providing certain financial services to the U.S. government, U.S. financial institutions, and foreign official institutions, and playing a major role in operating and overseeing the nation's payments systems.

61 One way the Federal Reserve System seeks to influence the U. S
One way the Federal Reserve System seeks to influence the U.S. economy is by raising or lowering the rate of interest (discount rate) that member banks must pay to borrow money from the Federal Reserve • Considering that the inflation rate rose significantly from 1976 to 1980, identify the change (increase or decrease) the Federal Reserve System could have made in the discount rate to reverse that trend. • Describe the expected impact this change in the discount rate would have had on: 􀁽 consumer spending 􀁽 business spending • Explain why this change in the discount rate would produce the desired effects on spending. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

62 Fed Essay Explained Exemplar: In order to counter increasing inflation rates, the Federal Reserve System could have increased the discount rate(Interest rate). This would have reduced consumer spending and business spending because higher discount rates (interest) mean there is less money in circulation. Other correct responses: The Federal Reserve System could have increased the discount rate. Consumer and business spending would have decreased because loans would be more difficult to obtain (expensive). Scoring Rubric 4 points if: The response contains the following four elements: it identifies that the Federal Reserve System could have raised the discount rate; accurately describes a decrease in consumer spending; accurately describes a decrease in business spending; and offers an accurate explanation of these effects related to decreased money circulation.

63 21) The 1930’s U.S. government attempted to distance the country from earlier interventionist policies in the Western Hemisphere as well as retain an isolationist approach to events in Europe and Asia until the beginning of WWII. Following World War I, the United States was reluctant to become entangled in overseas conflicts that would lead to another war. Although it had used the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary to justify intervention into Latin American affairs, the U.S. retreated from these policies during the1930s with the Good Neighbor Policy. The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s were attempts to isolate the country from the problems erupting in Asia and Europe. U.S tries to remain neutral leading up to WWII

64 In the early 1940’s, the "destroyers-for-military- bases deal" with Great Britain and the Lend- Lease Act were evidence that the United States A. recognized that its policy of neutrality conflicted with its self-interest B. followed its policy of neutrality more strictly as World War II progressed in Europe C. believed that the Allied policy of appeasement would succeed D. wanted to honor the military commitments it had made just after World War I

65 22) WWII Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan
Allied Powers: Great Britain, U.S., Soviet Union U.S. enters war when Japan attacks U.S. base at Pearl Harbor. December 7, 1941 Japanese-Americans are forced to live in internment camps Women work in factories to help the war effort African Americans continue to migrate north for factory jobs. War ends when U.S. drops two atomic bombs on Japan.

66 22) WWII Homefront The United States mobilization of its economic and military resources during World War II brought significant changes to American society. The federal government reorganized existing plants to produce goods and services for the war effort and instituted policies to ration and redirect resources. Mobilization caused major impacts on the lives of Americans Peacetime Draft, employment opportunities for women and minorities opened up.

67 Results of WWII Millions of refugees- people left homeless because of war. Many European colonies receive independence United Nations established to preserve world peace Nation of Israel established (Arab- Israeli conflict begins) U.S. and Soviet Union emerge as world’s “Superpowers” Atomic bombs begin arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union

68 During World War II, Japanese- Americans were relocated from their homes on the West Coast of the United States to internment camps in the U.S. interior. This action indicated a widespread fear that Japanese-Americans were A. a threat to national security. B. members of the Communist Party. C. competitors for jobs in wartime factories. D. immigrating to the United States in large numbers

69 World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to: A. the creation of new job opportunities B. the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment C. a greater number of high-level management positions D. greater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation

70 23-27) The Cold War End of WWII U.S. and Soviet Union become suspicious of each others motives and policies. a. Compete in arms and space race U.S. foreign policy based on containment of communism Soviet Union controls much of Eastern Europe, referred to as Iron Curtain or Soviet Bloc Marshall Plan was U.S. program to rebuild Europe after WWII a. Plan rejected by Soviet Union b. Plan weakened appeal of communism in Western Europe.

71 Cold War Korean Conflict helps Truman gain support for massive U.S. military build-up. Soviet Union and U.S. disagree over Berlin a. Berlin Airlift and Berlin Wall Castro comes to power in Cuba and allies with the Soviet Union Cuban Missiles Crisis a. Soviet Union attempts to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. b. War is prevented with the U.S. when Khrushchev backs down and removes the missiles. Vietnam War begins when Communist North Vietnam invades South Vietnam. a. U.S. aids South Vietnam because of the Domino Theory and containment.

72 During World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China
During World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China. This weakened the Chinese government, and in 1949, communist forces overthrew the government and established a communist state. What effect did the Chinese Communist Revolution have on the development of the Cold War? A. It decreased tensions, because it led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact. B. It increased tensions, because it strengthened the independence movement in India. C. It increased tensions, because it increased Western fears of communist expansion. D. It decreased tensions, because it led to the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union.

73 Following World War II, France attempted to re- establish control over its
colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietminh, a communist- supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided France. This U.S. action was based on which policy? A. a policy of opposing colonialism B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy C. a policy of containing the spread of communism D. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts

74 The Cold War between the United
States and the Soviet Union was partly the result of the expansion of the Soviet Union in Central and Eastern Europe as World War II ended. • Describe one U.S. concern about the Soviet Union’s domination of Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. • Cite a relevant action taken by the United States in response to the identified concern. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

75 28)Civil Rights Movement -Struggle for racial and gender equality
Jim Crow Laws allow for the legal separation of races (segregation) a. upheld by Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson Brown v. Board of Education declares segregation unconstitutional a. Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson Civil disobedience: legal form of protest to bring about government change.

76 Civil Rights African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians and women distinguished themselves in the effort to win World War II. Following the war, movements began to secure the same freedoms and opportunities for these Americans that other Americans enjoyed. African-American organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the National Urban League (NUL) struggled for equal opportunities and to end segregation.

77 Civil Rights and other movements
Mexican Americans organized through the United Farm Workers of America (UFW) to improve the conditions of migrant workers. Indians organized to improve conditions on reservations, protect land rights and improve opportunities in education and employment. They formed groups such as the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) and the American Indian Movement (AIM). Women made progress toward equal opportunities through demonstrations, lawsuits and the National Organization for Woman (NOW).

78 29) 1950’s – 1960’s-Postwar Economic Boom
U.S. economy was strong following WWII Cities suffer financially as middle class moves to suburbs. Baby Boomers: large increase in birthrate following WWII McCarthyism: Campaign to root at communism in U.S… (Red Scare) Technological advancements created more leisure time for the upper and middle class

79 Forms of Government Monarchy All monarchs gain power through heredity
Types a. Absolute: monarchs has sole control over government (Ppl have few or no rights) b. Constitutional: Power of monarch limited by constitution and or parliament Divine Right- Believe that monarch was put on the throne by God. Titles- king/queen, emperor/empress, czar/czarina

80 Forms of Government Dictator
Usually comes to power through military force Has absolute power When a dictator is removed from power this no clear succession. People have few or no rights. Oligarchy-like a dictatorship except a small group rules instead of a single person.

81 Forms of Government Democracy Government by the people Types
a. Presidential (Direct)- the people directly vote on all matters. b. Parliamentary (Representative)- the ppl elect representatives to make decisions for them. Power is limited by the constitution and regular elections

82 Forms of Government Theocracy No separation between Church and State
Leader is both political and religious leader Ex. Iran

83 U.S. Constitution/ Governments
Constitution known as the Supreme Law of the Land. Only way to change the Constitution is through the amendment process The U.S. government can only limit or place restrictions on your rights if: clear and present danger, public safety, national security, libel, slander, and equal opportunity. a. Schenck v. U.S. established clear and present danger The 3 branches of Government (executive, legislative, and judical) operate on a system of checks and balances.

84 Amendments 1st- Freedom or press, religion, petition, assembly, and speech 13th- abolished slavery 14th -Citizenship to everyone born in the U.S. (equal protection) 15th - Right to vote to all adult males 16th – Government can collect income tax 17th – Direct election of senators (Progressive Reform) 18th –Prohibition 19th- Women Suffrage (voting) 21st –Repealed 18th 24th –Outlaws literacy test and poll taxes as requirements for voting 26th –lowers voting age to 18

85 Supreme Court Cases Plessy v. Ferguson: Declared segregation legal
Brown v. Board of Education: segregation illegal a. overturns Plessy v. Ferguson Bakke v. CA: allows for affirmative action

86 Economics Types of Economics: a. Command: all economic decisions made by the government. b. Market: Businesses privately owned c. Traditional: heredity, traditions d. Mixed: Combination of privately owned and government controlled businesses.

87 Economics Trade: A. Definition: buying, selling, and exchanging of goods within and between countries. B. Exports: products leaving a country. C. Imports: products entering a country. D. Trade Imbalance occurs when a country’s imports and exports are not equal. -more imports than exports hurt a country’s economy. E. Tariff is a tax placed on imports to protect domestic products. F. Embargo/ Blockade: a country refuses to trade with another country for political or economic reasons.

88 Economics Taxes: A. Government raises money (revenue) by collecting taxes… 16th amendment. Congress created the Federal Reserve to manage the nation’s economy. A. It sets the interest rate: raise rate to get people to save, lower the rate to get people to spend money.

89 Geography Region: an area with one or more common characteristics or features. A. Geographic Region (Rocky Mountains) B. Political Region (U.S.A) C. Cultural Region (Middle East) D. Economic Region (Corn Belt) Geographic Regions changes over time as a result of human activity. Human activities such as mining & logging will change the physical geography of an areas.

90 Geography Technology has impacted the way humans deal with the natural geography of an area. Advanced transportation allows for the settlement in remote areas. Technology also allows for the diffusion (spreading) of ideas from one place to another. Throughout history people have migrated (moved) for political, social, economic, economic, and environmental reasons. Immigration: movement into a country Emigration: movement out of a country Globalization: the act, process, or policy of making something worldwide in scope or application. Indigenous: native to an area Interdependence: being mutually dependent. Topography: graphic representation of the surface of a place or region on a map.

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