Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One

2 What was the Enlightenment A time of new and revolutionary ideas in Europe during the late 1600s and 1700s A time of new and revolutionary ideas in Europe during the late 1600s and 1700s

3 John Locke English philosopher English philosopher Argued that people had the right to life, liberty, and property Argued that people had the right to life, liberty, and property Social Contract: If the government fails to protect rights, then the people have the right to overthrow that government and set up a new one. Social Contract: If the government fails to protect rights, then the people have the right to overthrow that government and set up a new one.

4 Montesquieu French Nobleman French Nobleman Critic of absolute monarchies Critic of absolute monarchies For individual freedom For individual freedom Believed liberty required a separation and balance of powers Believed liberty required a separation and balance of powers

5 Rousseau Expanded on the ideas of the social contract Expanded on the ideas of the social contract A community should consist of people who share common values and attitudes. A community should consist of people who share common values and attitudes.

6 Benjamin Franklin Brought many of these ideas back from Europe and opened their discussion. Brought many of these ideas back from Europe and opened their discussion. Played a part in the decision to gain independence and form a new US government. Played a part in the decision to gain independence and form a new US government.

7 Major Enlightenment Ideas Applied natural law, reason, and rationalism to government, religion, and economics Applied natural law, reason, and rationalism to government, religion, and economics Challenged absolutism, divine right of kings, and religious authority Challenged absolutism, divine right of kings, and religious authority Governments should not regulate business/the economy (laissez-faire) Governments should not regulate business/the economy (laissez-faire) Governments exist to protect natural rights of the citizens Governments exist to protect natural rights of the citizens Citizens can change/overthrow governments if rights are not being protected (Social Contract) Citizens can change/overthrow governments if rights are not being protected (Social Contract)

8 The Impact of the Enlightenment Changed the relationship between citizens and their governments Changed the relationship between citizens and their governments –Influenced the American Revolution (Declaration of Independence) –Influenced the French Revolution (Declaration of the Rights of Man) –Influenced the Latin American Wars for Independence

9 Types of Government

10 Totalitarian Dictatorship Rule by a single leader or a small group Rule by a single leader or a small group May use force to keep control May use force to keep control Little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights Little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights May also be an oligarchy (rule by a small group) May also be an oligarchy (rule by a small group)

11 Theocracy Rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity. Rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.

12 Absolute Monarchy Has a king or queen Has a king or queen Complete power Complete power Power is passed along through the family Power is passed along through the family Claims Divine Right Claims Divine Right

13 Constitutional Monarchy King or queen rules in partnership with a democratically elected parliament. King or queen rules in partnership with a democratically elected parliament.

14 Direct Democracy Citizens vote on all issues. Citizens vote on all issues.

15 Indirect/Representative Democracy (Republic) Led by representatives of the voters Led by representatives of the voters Each is individually chosen for a set period of time. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.

16 Anarchy Absence or non- recognition of authority and order in any given sphere. Absence or non- recognition of authority and order in any given sphere.

17 Presidential Democracy A system characterized by a separation of powers between equal legislative and executive branches A system characterized by a separation of powers between equal legislative and executive branches Example: The United States Example: The United States

18 What do dictatorships and absolute monarchies have in common? What do democracies and constitutional monarchies have in common?

19 Important Amendments to Remember 1 st Amendment 1 st Amendment 13 th Amendment 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment 15 th Amendment 16 th Amendment 16 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 26 th Amendment 26 th Amendment

20 Rights are Relative, Not Absolute There are limits on individual rights. Why? There are limits on individual rights. Why? –Clear and present danger –Compelling government interest –National security –Libel/slander –Public safety –Equal opportunity –Examples: Conscientious objectors during WWI, Red Scare immigrant, intellectuals during the McCarty era

21 Important Court Cases to Remember Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Schenck v. U.S. (1919) Schenck v. U.S. (1919) U. of California v. Bakke (1978) U. of California v. Bakke (1978)

22 How can citizens enact change? Political Parties Political Parties Interest Groups and Lobbyists Interest Groups and Lobbyists The Media The Media Public Opinion Public Opinion Civil Disobedience Civil Disobedience –Womens Suffrage Movement –Civil Rights Movement –Protest during the Vietnam War Revolution Revolution

23 The Economic System

24 Fundamental Questions What goods and services should be produced? What goods and services should be produced? How should these goods and services be produced? How should these goods and services be produced? For whom should these goods and services be produced? (Who will consume these goods and services?) For whom should these goods and services be produced? (Who will consume these goods and services?)

25 Market Economy Decisions on production and consumption are made by private individuals acting as buyers and sellers. Decisions on production and consumption are made by private individuals acting as buyers and sellers. Private property, the profit motive, freedom of enterprise, competition, supply and demand, and consumer choice are important. Private property, the profit motive, freedom of enterprise, competition, supply and demand, and consumer choice are important. Role of government is limited. Role of government is limited. Example: The United States Example: The United States

26 Problems with a Pure Market Economy Difficulty enforcing property rights. Difficulty enforcing property rights. Some people have few resources to sell. Some people have few resources to sell. Some firms try to monopolize markets. Some firms try to monopolize markets. No public goods. No public goods.

27 Command Economy All decisions on production and consumption are made by a central government. All decisions on production and consumption are made by a central government. Examples: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union Examples: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union

28 Problems with a Command Economy All resources government-owned All resources government-owned Production coordinated by the central plans of government Production coordinated by the central plans of government Sometimes called communism Sometimes called communism Little choice in jobs or products Little choice in jobs or products

29 Traditional Economy Decisions on production and consumption are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits. Decisions on production and consumption are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits. Change and growth are slow. Change and growth are slow. Non-industrial Non-industrial Agriculture is usually the main activity. Agriculture is usually the main activity.

30 Mixed Economy Combines features of more than one of the traditional, command, and market systems. Combines features of more than one of the traditional, command, and market systems. Most economies (including the U.S.) are mixed economies. Most economies (including the U.S.) are mixed economies.

31 Role of U.S. Government in the Economy Provides public services, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability. Provides public services, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability. Prior to the Great Depression, the role of government was limited. Prior to the Great Depression, the role of government was limited. Social Security, the Food and Drug Administration, taxes, antitrust legislation, environmental regulations, tariffs, and the Federal Reserve are all example of government involvement in the economy today. Social Security, the Food and Drug Administration, taxes, antitrust legislation, environmental regulations, tariffs, and the Federal Reserve are all example of government involvement in the economy today.


Download ppt "Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google