Presentation on theme: "Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One
2What was the Enlightenment A time of new and revolutionary ideas in Europe during the late 1600s and 1700s
3John Locke English philosopher Argued that people had the right to life, liberty, and propertySocial Contract: If the government fails to protect rights, then the people have the right to overthrow that government and set up a new one.
4Montesquieu French Nobleman Critic of absolute monarchies For individual freedomBelieved liberty required a separation and balance of powers
5Rousseau Expanded on the ideas of the social contract A community should consist of people who share common values and attitudes.
6Benjamin FranklinBrought many of these ideas back from Europe and opened their discussion.Played a part in the decision to gain independence and form a new US government.
7Major Enlightenment Ideas Applied natural law, reason, and rationalism to government, religion, and economicsChallenged absolutism, divine right of kings, and religious authorityGovernments should not regulate business/the economy (laissez-faire)Governments exist to protect natural rights of the citizensCitizens can change/overthrow governments if rights are not being protected (Social Contract)
8The Impact of the Enlightenment Changed the relationship between citizens and their governmentsInfluenced the American Revolution (Declaration of Independence)Influenced the French Revolution (Declaration of the Rights of Man)Influenced the Latin American Wars for Independence
10Totalitarian Dictatorship Rule by a single leader or a small groupMay use force to keep controlLittle or no attention to public opinion or individual rightsMay also be an oligarchy (rule by a small group)
11TheocracyRulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.
12Absolute Monarchy Has a king or queen Complete power Power is passed along through the familyClaims “Divine Right”
13Constitutional Monarchy King or queen rules in partnership with a democratically elected parliament.
20Rights are Relative, Not Absolute There are limits on individual rights. Why?Clear and present dangerCompelling government interestNational securityLibel/slanderPublic safetyEqual opportunityExamples: Conscientious objectors during WWI, Red Scare immigrant, intellectuals during the McCarty era
21Important Court Cases to Remember Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Schenck v. U.S. (1919)U. of California v. Bakke (1978)
22How can citizens enact change? Political PartiesInterest Groups and LobbyistsThe MediaPublic OpinionCivil DisobedienceWomen’s Suffrage MovementCivil Rights MovementProtest during the Vietnam WarRevolution
24Fundamental Questions What goods and services should be produced?How should these goods and services be produced?For whom should these goods and services be produced? (Who will consume these goods and services?)
25Market EconomyDecisions on production and consumption are made by private individuals acting as buyers and sellers.Private property, the profit motive, freedom of enterprise, competition, supply and demand, and consumer choice are important.Role of government is limited.Example: The United States
26Problems with a Pure Market Economy Difficulty enforcing property rights.Some people have few resources to sell.Some firms try to monopolize markets.No public goods.
27Command EconomyAll decisions on production and consumption are made by a central government.Examples: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union
28Problems with a Command Economy All resources government-ownedProduction coordinated by the central plans of governmentSometimes called communismLittle choice in jobs or products
29Traditional EconomyDecisions on production and consumption are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits.Change and growth are slow.Non-industrialAgriculture is usually the main activity.
30Mixed EconomyCombines features of more than one of the traditional, command, and market systems.Most economies (including the U.S.) are mixed economies.
31Role of U.S. Government in the Economy Provides public services, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability.Prior to the Great Depression, the role of government was limited.Social Security, the Food and Drug Administration, taxes, antitrust legislation, environmental regulations, tariffs, and the Federal Reserve are all example of government involvement in the economy today.