Presentation on theme: "Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution OGT Review One
2 What was the Enlightenment A time of new and revolutionary ideas in Europe during the late 1600s and 1700s
3 John Locke English philosopher Argued that people had the right to life, liberty, and propertySocial Contract: If the government fails to protect rights, then the people have the right to overthrow that government and set up a new one.
4 Montesquieu French Nobleman Critic of absolute monarchies For individual freedomBelieved liberty required a separation and balance of powers
5 Rousseau Expanded on the ideas of the social contract A community should consist of people who share common values and attitudes.
6 Benjamin FranklinBrought many of these ideas back from Europe and opened their discussion.Played a part in the decision to gain independence and form a new US government.
7 Major Enlightenment Ideas Applied natural law, reason, and rationalism to government, religion, and economicsChallenged absolutism, divine right of kings, and religious authorityGovernments should not regulate business/the economy (laissez-faire)Governments exist to protect natural rights of the citizensCitizens can change/overthrow governments if rights are not being protected (Social Contract)
8 The Impact of the Enlightenment Changed the relationship between citizens and their governmentsInfluenced the American Revolution (Declaration of Independence)Influenced the French Revolution (Declaration of the Rights of Man)Influenced the Latin American Wars for Independence
10 Totalitarian Dictatorship Rule by a single leader or a small groupMay use force to keep controlLittle or no attention to public opinion or individual rightsMay also be an oligarchy (rule by a small group)
11 TheocracyRulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.
12 Absolute Monarchy Has a king or queen Complete power Power is passed along through the familyClaims “Divine Right”
13 Constitutional Monarchy King or queen rules in partnership with a democratically elected parliament.
15 Indirect/Representative Democracy (Republic) Led by representatives of the votersEach is individually chosen for a set period of time.
16 AnarchyAbsence or non-recognition of authority and order in any given sphere.
17 Presidential Democracy A system characterized by a separation of powers between equal legislative and executive branchesExample: The United States
18 What do dictatorships and absolute monarchies have in common What do dictatorships and absolute monarchies have in common? What do democracies and constitutional monarchies have in common?
19 Important Amendments to Remember 1st Amendment13th Amendment14th Amendment15th Amendment16th Amendment17th Amendment19th Amendment26th Amendment
20 Rights are Relative, Not Absolute There are limits on individual rights. Why?Clear and present dangerCompelling government interestNational securityLibel/slanderPublic safetyEqual opportunityExamples: Conscientious objectors during WWI, Red Scare immigrant, intellectuals during the McCarty era
21 Important Court Cases to Remember Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Schenck v. U.S. (1919)U. of California v. Bakke (1978)
22 How can citizens enact change? Political PartiesInterest Groups and LobbyistsThe MediaPublic OpinionCivil DisobedienceWomen’s Suffrage MovementCivil Rights MovementProtest during the Vietnam WarRevolution
24 Fundamental Questions What goods and services should be produced?How should these goods and services be produced?For whom should these goods and services be produced? (Who will consume these goods and services?)
25 Market EconomyDecisions on production and consumption are made by private individuals acting as buyers and sellers.Private property, the profit motive, freedom of enterprise, competition, supply and demand, and consumer choice are important.Role of government is limited.Example: The United States
26 Problems with a Pure Market Economy Difficulty enforcing property rights.Some people have few resources to sell.Some firms try to monopolize markets.No public goods.
27 Command EconomyAll decisions on production and consumption are made by a central government.Examples: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union
28 Problems with a Command Economy All resources government-ownedProduction coordinated by the central plans of governmentSometimes called communismLittle choice in jobs or products
29 Traditional EconomyDecisions on production and consumption are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits.Change and growth are slow.Non-industrialAgriculture is usually the main activity.
30 Mixed EconomyCombines features of more than one of the traditional, command, and market systems.Most economies (including the U.S.) are mixed economies.
31 Role of U.S. Government in the Economy Provides public services, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability.Prior to the Great Depression, the role of government was limited.Social Security, the Food and Drug Administration, taxes, antitrust legislation, environmental regulations, tariffs, and the Federal Reserve are all example of government involvement in the economy today.