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Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Government, the Enlightenment and the U.S. Constitution
OGT Review One

2 What was the Enlightenment
A time of new and revolutionary ideas in Europe during the late 1600s and 1700s

3 John Locke English philosopher
Argued that people had the right to life, liberty, and property Social Contract: If the government fails to protect rights, then the people have the right to overthrow that government and set up a new one.

4 Montesquieu French Nobleman Critic of absolute monarchies
For individual freedom Believed liberty required a separation and balance of powers

5 Rousseau Expanded on the ideas of the social contract
A community should consist of people who share common values and attitudes.

6 Benjamin Franklin Brought many of these ideas back from Europe and opened their discussion. Played a part in the decision to gain independence and form a new US government.

7 Major Enlightenment Ideas
Applied natural law, reason, and rationalism to government, religion, and economics Challenged absolutism, divine right of kings, and religious authority Governments should not regulate business/the economy (laissez-faire) Governments exist to protect natural rights of the citizens Citizens can change/overthrow governments if rights are not being protected (Social Contract)

8 The Impact of the Enlightenment
Changed the relationship between citizens and their governments Influenced the American Revolution (Declaration of Independence) Influenced the French Revolution (Declaration of the Rights of Man) Influenced the Latin American Wars for Independence

9 Types of Government

10 Totalitarian Dictatorship
Rule by a single leader or a small group May use force to keep control Little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights May also be an oligarchy (rule by a small group)

11 Theocracy Rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.

12 Absolute Monarchy Has a king or queen Complete power
Power is passed along through the family Claims “Divine Right”

13 Constitutional Monarchy
King or queen rules in partnership with a democratically elected parliament.

14 Direct Democracy Citizens vote on all issues.

15 Indirect/Representative Democracy (Republic)
Led by representatives of the voters Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.

16 Anarchy Absence or non-recognition of authority and order in any given sphere.

17 Presidential Democracy
A system characterized by a separation of powers between equal legislative and executive branches Example: The United States

18 What do dictatorships and absolute monarchies have in common
What do dictatorships and absolute monarchies have in common? What do democracies and constitutional monarchies have in common?

19 Important Amendments to Remember
1st Amendment 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment 16th Amendment 17th Amendment 19th Amendment 26th Amendment

20 Rights are Relative, Not Absolute
There are limits on individual rights. Why? Clear and present danger Compelling government interest National security Libel/slander Public safety Equal opportunity Examples: Conscientious objectors during WWI, Red Scare immigrant, intellectuals during the McCarty era

21 Important Court Cases to Remember
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Schenck v. U.S. (1919) U. of California v. Bakke (1978)

22 How can citizens enact change?
Political Parties Interest Groups and Lobbyists The Media Public Opinion Civil Disobedience Women’s Suffrage Movement Civil Rights Movement Protest during the Vietnam War Revolution

23 The Economic System

24 Fundamental Questions
What goods and services should be produced? How should these goods and services be produced? For whom should these goods and services be produced? (Who will consume these goods and services?)

25 Market Economy Decisions on production and consumption are made by private individuals acting as buyers and sellers. Private property, the profit motive, freedom of enterprise, competition, supply and demand, and consumer choice are important. Role of government is limited. Example: The United States

26 Problems with a Pure Market Economy
Difficulty enforcing property rights. Some people have few resources to sell. Some firms try to monopolize markets. No public goods.

27 Command Economy All decisions on production and consumption are made by a central government. Examples: Nazi Germany and Soviet Union

28 Problems with a Command Economy
All resources government-owned Production coordinated by the central plans of government Sometimes called communism Little choice in jobs or products

29 Traditional Economy Decisions on production and consumption are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits. Change and growth are slow. Non-industrial Agriculture is usually the main activity.

30 Mixed Economy Combines features of more than one of the traditional, command, and market systems. Most economies (including the U.S.) are mixed economies.

31 Role of U.S. Government in the Economy
Provides public services, regulates economic activity, and promotes economic growth and stability. Prior to the Great Depression, the role of government was limited. Social Security, the Food and Drug Administration, taxes, antitrust legislation, environmental regulations, tariffs, and the Federal Reserve are all example of government involvement in the economy today.

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